LTC2413 Datasheet by Analog Devices Inc.

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LTC2413
1
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Typical applicaTion
FeaTures DescripTion
24-Bit No Latency ∆Σ ADC,
with Simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz Rejection
The LTC
®
2413
is a 2.7V to 5.5V simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz
rejection micropower 24-bit differentialΣ analog to
digital converter with an integrated oscillator, 2ppm INL
and 0.16ppm RMS noise. It uses delta-sigma technology
and provides single cycle settling time for multiplexed
applications. Through a single pin, the LTC2413 can be
configured for better than 87dB input differential mode
rejection over the range of 49Hz to 61.2Hz (50Hz and
60Hz ±2% simultaneously), or it can be driven by an
external oscillator for a user defined rejection frequency.
The internal oscillator requires no external frequency
setting components.
The converter accepts any external differential reference
voltage from 0.1V to VCC for flexible ratiometric and re-
mote sensing measurement configurations. The full-scale
differential input range is from –0.5VREF to 0.5VREF. The
reference common mode voltage, VREFCM, and the input
common mode voltage, VINCM, may be independently set
anywhere within the GND to VCC range of the LTC2413. The
DC common mode input rejection is better than 140dB.
The LTC2413 communicates through a flexible 3-wire
digital interface which is compatible with SPI and
MICROWIRE protocols.
Measured Noise Rejection from 48Hz to 62.5Hz
applicaTions
n Simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz Rejection
(87dB Minimum)
n Differential Input and Differential Reference with
GND to VCC Common Mode Range
n 2ppm INL and No Missing Codes at 24 Bits
n 0.1ppm Offset and 2.5ppm Full-Scale Error
n 0.16ppm Noise
n No Latency: Digital Filter Settles in a Single Cycle
n Internal Oscillator—No External Components
Required
n 24-Bit ADC in Narrow SSOP-16 Package
(SO-8 Footprint)
n Single Supply 2.7V to 5.5V Operation
n Low Supply Current (200µA) and Auto Shutdown
n Pin Compatible with LTC2410
n Direct Sensor Digitizer
n Weight Scales
n Direct Temperature Measurement
n Gas Analyzers
n Strain-Gauge Transducers
n Instrumentation
n Data Acquisition
n Industrial Process Control
n 6-Digit DVMs
n Products for International Markets
L, LT, LT C , LT M, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks and No
Latency ∆∑ is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
3-WIRE
SPI INTERFACE
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
2413 TA01
= EXTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE
= INTERNAL OSC/
SIMULTANEOUS 50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
INPUT FREQUENCY (Hz)
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62
NORMAL MODE REECTION (dB)
2413 TA02
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
VIN(P-P) = 5V
TA = 25°C
MEASURED DATA
CALCULATED DATA
LTC241 3 EEEEEEEH EEEEEEEE
LTC2413
2
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
pin conFiguraTionabsoluTe MaxiMuM raTings
Supply Voltage (VCC) to GND .......................0.3V to 7V
Analog Input Pins Voltage
to GND ......................................0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
Reference Input Pins Voltage
to GND ......................................0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
Digital Input Voltage to GND .........0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
Digital Output Voltage to GND .......0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
Operating Temperature Range
LTC2413C ................................................ C to 70°C
LTC2413I .............................................40°C to 8C
Storage Temperature Range .................. 6C to 150°C
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec) ...................30C
(Notes 1, 2)
TOP VIEW
GN PACKAGE
16-LEAD PLASTIC SSOP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
GND
VCC
REF+
REF
IN+
IN
GND
GND
GND
GND
FO
SCK
SDO
CS
GND
GND
TJMAX = 125°C, θJA = 95°C/W
orDer inForMaTion
LEAD FREE FINISH TAPE AND REEL PART MARKING PACKAGE DESCRIPTION TEMPERATURE RANGE
LTC2413CGN#PBF LTC2413CGN#TRPBF 2413 16-Lead Plastic SSOP 0°C to 70°C
LTC2413IGN#PBF LTC2413IGN#TRPBF 2413I 16-Lead Plastic SSOP –40°C to 85°C
Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges.
Consult LTC Marketing for information on nonstandard lead based finish parts.
For more information on lead free part marking, go to: http://www.linear.com/leadfree/
For more information on tape and reel specifications, go to: http://www.linear.com/tapeandreel/
LTC2413
LTC2413
3
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
elecTrical characTerisTics
PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Resolution (No Missing Codes) 0.1V ≤ VREF ≤ VCC, –0.5 • VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.5 • VREF, (Note 5) l24 Bits
Integral Nonlinearity 4.5VVCC ≤ 5.5V, REF+ = 2.5V, REF = GND, VINCM = 1.25V, (Note 6)
5V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V, REF+ = 5V, REF = GND, VINCM = 2.5V, (Note 6)
REF+ = 2.5V, REF = GND, VINCM = 1.25V, (Note 6)
l
1
2
5
14 ppm of VREF
ppm of VREF
ppm of VREF
Offset Error 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
GND ≤ IN+ = IN ≤ VCC, (Note 13)
l0.5 2.5 µV
Offset Error Drift 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
GND ≤ IN+ = IN ≤ VCC
10 nV/°C
Positive Full-Scale Error 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
IN+ = 0.75 • REF+, IN = 0.25 • REF+
l2.5 12 ppm of VREF
Positive Full-Scale Error Drift 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
IN+ = 0.75 • REF+, IN = 0.25 • REF+0.03 ppm of VREF/°C
Negative Full-Scale Error 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
IN+ = 0.25 • REF+, IN = 0.75 • REF+
l2.5 12 ppm of VREF
Negative Full-Scale Error Drift 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
IN+ = 0.25 • REF+, IN = 0.75 • REF+0.03 ppm of VREF/°C
Total Unadjusted Error 4.5V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V, REF+ = 2.5V, REF = GND, VINCM = 1.25V
5V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V, REF+ = 5V, REF = GND, VINCM = 2.5V
REF+ = 2.5V, REF = GND, VINCM = 1.25V
3
3
4
ppm of VREF
ppm of VREF
ppm of VREF
Output Noise 5V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V, REF+ = 5V, VREF– = GND,
GND ≤ IN = IN+ ≤ 5V, (Note 12) 0.8 µVRMS
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. (Notes 3, 4)
LTC241 3
LTC2413
4
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
converTer characTerisTics
analog inpuT anD reFerence
PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Input Common Mode Rejection DC 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
GND ≤ IN = IN+ ≤ VCC
l130 140 dB
Input Common Mode Rejection
49Hz to 61.2Hz 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, REF = GND,
GND ≤ IN = IN+ ≤ VCC, (Note 7)
l140 dB
Input Normal Mode Rejection
49Hz to 61.2Hz (Note 7) l87 dB
Input Normal Mode Rejection
External Clock fEOSC/2560 ±14% External Oscillator l87 dB
Input Normal Mode Rejection
External Clock fEOSC/2560 ±4% External Oscillator l110 140 dB
Reference Common Mode
Rejection DC 2.5V ≤ REF+ ≤ VCC, GND ≤ REF ≤ 2.5V,
VREF = 2.5V, IN = IN+ = GND
l130 140 dB
Power Supply Rejection, DC REF+ = 2.5V, REF = GND, IN = IN+ = GND 120 dB
Power Supply Rejection
Simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz ±2% REF+ = 2.5V, REF = GND,
IN = IN+ = GND, (Note 7) 120 dB
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
IN+Absolute/Common Mode IN+ Voltage lGND – 0.3V VCC + 0.3V V
INAbsolute/Common Mode IN Voltage lGND – 0.3V VCC + 0.3V V
VIN Input Differential Voltage Range
(IN+ – IN)
l–VREF/2 –VREF/2 V
REF+Absolute/Common Mode REF+ Voltage l0.1 VCC V
REFAbsolute/Common Mode REF Voltage lGND VCC – 0.1V V
VREF Reference Differential Voltage Range
(REF+ – REF)
l0.1 VCC V
CS (IN+) IN+ Sampling Capacitance 18 pF
CS (IN) IN Sampling Capacitance 18 pF
CS (REF+) REF+ Sampling Capacitance 18 pF
CS (REF) REF Sampling Capacitance 18 pF
IDC_LEAK (IN+) IN+ DC Leakage Current CS = VCC, IN+ = GND l–10 1 10 nA
IDC_LEAK (IN) IN DC Leakage Current CS = VCC, IN = GND l–10 1 10 nA
IDC_LEAK (REF+) REF+ DC Leakage Current CS = VCC, REF+ = 5V l–10 1 10 nA
IDC_LEAK (REF) REF DC Leakage Current CS = VCC, REF = GND l–10 1 10 nA
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. (Notes 3, 4)
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. (Note 3)
LTC2413
LTC2413
5
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
DigiTal inpuTs anD ouTpuTs
power requireMenTs
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
VIH High Level Input Voltage
CS, FO
2.7V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V
2.7V ≤ VCC ≤ 3.3V
l2.5
2.0 V
V
VIL Low Level Input Voltage
CS, FO
4.5V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V
2.7V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V
l0.8
0.6 V
V
VIH High Level Input Voltage
SCK 2.7V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V (Note 8)
2.7V ≤ VCC ≤ 3.3V (Note 8)
l2.5
2.0 V
V
VIL Low Level Input Voltage
SCK 4.5V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V (Note 8)
2.7V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V (Note 8)
l0.8
0.6 V
V
IIN Digital Input Current
CS, FO
0V ≤ VIN ≤ VCC l–10 10 µA
Digital Input Current
SCK 0V ≤ VIN ≤ VCC (Note 8) l–10 10 µA
CIN Digital Input Capacitance
CS, FO
10 pF
Digital Input Capacitance
SCK (Note 8) 10 pF
VOH High Level Output Voltage
SDO IO = –800µA lVCC – 0.5V V
VOL Low Level Output Voltage
SDO IO = 1.6mA l0.4 V
VOH High Level Output Voltage
SCK IO = –800µA (Note 9) lVCC – 0.5V V
VOL Low Level Output Voltage
SCK IO = 1.6mA (Note 9) l0.4 V
IOZ Hi-Z Output Leakage
SDO
l–10 10 µA
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
VCC Supply Voltage l2.7 5.5 V
ICC Supply Current
Conversion Mode
Sleep Mode
CS = 0V (Note 11)
CS = VCC (Note 11)
l
l
200
20
300
30
µA
µA
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. (Note 3)
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating temperature
range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. (Note 3)
LTC241 3
LTC2413
6
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
TiMing characTerisTics
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
fEOSC External Oscillator Frequency Range l2.56 500 kHz
tHEO External Oscillator High Period l0.25 390 µs
tLEO External Oscillator Low Period l390 µs
tCONV Conversion Time FO = 0V
External Oscillator (Note 10)
l
l
146.71
20510/fEOSC (in kHz) ms
ms
f ISCK Internal SCK Frequency Internal Oscillator (Note 9)
External Oscillator (Notes 9, 10)
17.5
fEOSC/8
kHz
kHz
DISCK Internal SCK Duty Cycle (Note 9) l45 55 %
fESCK External SCK Frequency Range (Note 8) l2000 kHz
tLESCK External SCK Low Period (Note 8) l250 ns
tHESCK External SCK High Period (Note 8) l250 ns
tDOUT_ISCK Internal SCK 32-Bit Data Output Time Internal Oscillator (Notes 9, 11)
External Oscillator (Notes 9, 10)
l
l
1.80 1.83 1.86 ms
ms
tDOUT_ESCK External SCK 32-Bit Data Output Time (Note 8) l32/fESCK (in kHz) ms
t1CS to SDO Low Z l0 200 ns
t2 CS to SDO Hi-Z l0 200 ns
t3 CS to SCK (Note 9) l0 200 ns
t4 CS to SCK (Note 8) l50 ns
tKQMAX SCK to SDO Valid l220 ns
tKQMIN SDO Hold After SCK (Note 5) l15 ns
t5SCK Set-Up Before CS l50 ns
t6SCK Hold After CS l50 ns
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating temperature
range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. (Note 3)
20510/fEOSC (in kHz)
Note 1: Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. Exposure to any Absolute
Maximum Rating condition for extended periods may affect device
reliability and lifetime.
Note 2: All voltage values are with respect to GND.
Note 3: VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V unless otherwise specified.
VREF = REF+ – REF, VREFCM = (REF+ + REF)/2;
VIN = IN+ – IN, VINCM = (IN+ + IN)/2.
Note 4: FO pin tied to GND or to external conversion clock source with
fEOSC = 139800Hz unless otherwise specified.
Note 5: Guaranteed by design, not subject to test.
Note 6: Integral nonlinearity is defined as the deviation of a code from a
straight line passing through the actual endpoints of the transfer curve.
The deviation is measured from the center of the quantization band.
Note 7: FO = 0V (internal oscillator) or fEOSC = 139800Hz ±2%
(external oscillator).
Note 8: The converter is in external SCK mode of operation such that the
SCK pin is used as digital input. The frequency of the clock signal driving
SCK during the data output is fESCK and is expressed in kHz.
Note 9: The converter is in internal SCK mode of operation such that the
SCK pin is used as digital output.
Note 10: The external oscillator is connected to the FO pin. The external
oscillator frequency, fEOSC, is expressed in kHz.
Note 11: The converter uses the internal oscillator. FO = 0V.
Note 12: The output noise includes the contribution of the internal
calibration operations.
Note 13: Guaranteed by design and test correlation.
3 if L4 4;? 433’ \/ 1’17 ?% i rt liky /r s; \ e LTC2413 GAUSS‘A msma m = n ‘ :1 = u ‘ qu GAUSS‘AN mswau m = u 05 a = o ‘5 GAussmN mswau 7 m = u u: a = 029 7w L7 LJUW
LTC2413
7
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Typical perForMance characTerisTics
Total Unadjusted Error vs
Temperature (VCC = 2.7V,
VREF = 2.5V)
Total Unadjusted Error vs
Temperature (VCC = 5V,
VREF = 2.5V)
Total Unadjusted Error vs
Temperature (VCC = 5V,
VREF = 5V)
Integral Nonlinearity vs
Temperature (VCC = 2.7V,
VREF = 2.5V)
Integral Nonlinearity vs
Temperature (VCC = 5V,
VREF = 2.5V)
Integral Nonlinearity vs
Temperature (VCC = 5V,
VREF = 5V)
Noise Histogram (Output Rate =
22.5Hz, VCC = 5V, VREF = 5V)
Noise Histogram (Output Rate =
6.83Hz, VCC = 5V, VREF = 5V)
VIN (V)
2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
TUE (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G01
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VREF = 5V
VINCM = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 90°C
TA = 25°C
TA = –45°C
VIN (V)
–1 0.5 0 0.5 1
TUE (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G02
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
VINCM = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 90°C
TA = 25°C
TA = –45°C
VIN (V)
–1 0.5 0 0.5 1
TUE (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G03
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
VCC = 2.7V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
VINCM = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 90°C
TA = 25°C
TA = –45°C
VIN (V)
2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
INL ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G04
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VREF = 5V
VINCM = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = –45°C
TA = 25°C
TA = 90°C
VIN (V)
–1 0.5 0 0.5 1
INL ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G05
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
VINCM = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
TA = –45°C
TA = 90°C
VIN (V)
–1 0.5 0 0.5 1
INL ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G06
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
VREF = 2.5V
VINCM = 1.25V
FO = GND
VCC = 2.7V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
TA = 25°C
TA = –45°C
TA = 90°C
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
–0.8 –0.6 –0.4 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G07
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10,000 CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 5V
VREF = 5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN
DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.105ppm
σ = 0.153ppm
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
–0.8 –0.6 –0.4 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G08
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10,000 CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 5V
VREF = 5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = 2.5V
FO = 460800Hz
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN
DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.067ppm
σ = 0.151ppm
Noise Histogram (Output Rate =
6.83Hz VCC = 5V, VREF = 2.5V)
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
1.6 0.8 0 0.8 1.6
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G09
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10,000 CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 5V
VREF = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN
DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.033ppm
σ = 0.293ppm
LTC241 3 GAUSS‘AN GAUSSIAN u on GAUSSIAN msTmBu mswau we mswau m=um m=UEI7 27 ” m=UV7 6:029 6*U29 2 6=U29 \ V 5V 2 5V ND 7 GND / V 25V V 25V UHZ UBUUHZ c L h. L7 LINE/“2 v toerch
LTC2413
8
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Typical perForMance characTerisTics
Noise Histogram (Output Rate =
22.5Hz, VCC = 5V, VREF = 2.5V)
Noise Histogram (Output Rate =
22.5Hz, VCC = 2.7V, VREF = 2.5V)
Noise Histogram (Output Rate =
6.83Hz VCC = 2.7V, VREF = 2.5V)
RMS Noise vs Input Differential
Voltage
Consecutive ADC Readings vs
Time
Long-Term Noise Histogram
(Time = 60 Hrs, VCC = 5V,
VREF = 5V)
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
1.6 1.2 –0.8 –0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G10
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10,000 CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 5V
VREF = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 1.25V
FO = 460800Hz
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN
DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.014ppm
σ = 0.292ppm
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G11
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10,000 CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 2.7V
VREF = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN
DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.079ppm
σ = 0.298ppm
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G12
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10,000 CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 2.7V
VREF = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 1.25V
FO = 460800Hz
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN
DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.177ppm
σ = 0.297ppm
OUTPUT CODE (ppm OF VREF)
–0.8 –0.6 –0.4 –0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
NUMBER OF READINGS (%)
2413 G13
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
ADC CONSECUTIVE
READINGS
VCC = 5V
VREF = 5V
VIN = 0V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION
m = 0.101837ppm
σ = 0.154515ppm
TIME (HOURS)
05 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
ADC READING (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G14
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
VCC = 5V
VREF = 5V
VIN = 0V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = 2.5V
INPUT DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE (V)
2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
RMS NOISE (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G15
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
VCC = 5V
VREF = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
RMS Noise vs VCC
RMS Noise vs Temperature (TA)RMS Noise vs VINCM
VINCM (V)
–0.5 0 10.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
RMS NOISE (nV)
2413 G16
850
825
800
775
750
725
700
675
650
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VREF = 5V
IN+ = VINCM
IN = VINCM
VIN = 0V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
TEMPERATURE (°C)
RMS NOISE (nV)
2413 G17
850
825
800
775
750
725
700
675
650
50 25 0 25 50 75 100
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
FO = GND
VCC (V)
2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5
RMS NOISE (nV)
2413 G18
850
825
800
775
750
725
700
675
650
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
LTC2413 L7 LJUW 9
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Typical perForMance characTerisTics
Offset Error vs Temperature (TA)Offset Error vs VINCM
RMS Noise vs VREF
+Full-Scale Error vs
Temperature (TA)Offset Error vs VREF
Offset Error vs VCC
VREF (V)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
RMS NOISE (nV)
2413 G19
850
825
800
775
750
725
700
675
650
VCC = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
VINCM (V)
–0.5 0 10.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G20
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VREF = 5V
IN+ = VINCM
IN = VINCM
VIN = 0V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
TEMPERATURE (°C)
–50 –25 0 25 50 75 100
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G21
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
FO = GND
VCC (V)
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G22
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5
VREF (V)
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
VCC = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
TEMPERATURE (°C)
+FULL-SCALE ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G24
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 2.5V
IN = GND
FO = GND
Full-Scale Error vs
Temperature (TA)+Full-Scale Error vs VREF
+Full-Scale Error vs VCC
VCC (V)
+FULL-SCALE ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G25
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5
VREF (V)
+FULL-SCALE ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G26
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
VCC = 5V
REF+ = VREF
REF = GND
IN+ = 0.5 • REF+
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
TEMPERATURE (°C)
FULL-SCALE ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G27
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
LTC241 3
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Typical perForMance characTerisTics
PSRR vs Frequency at VCC
Full-Scale Error vs VREF
Full-Scale Error vs VCC
PSRR vs Frequency at VCC
PSRR vs Frequency at VCC
PSRR vs Frequency at VCC
VCC (V)
FULL-SCALE ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G28
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
VREF = 2.5V
IN+ = GND
IN = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5
VREF (V)
FULL-SCALE ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 G29
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
VCC = 5V
REF+ = VREF
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = 0.5 • REF+
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
FREQUENCY AT VCC (Hz)
REJECTION (dB)
2413 G30
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
VCC = 4.1VDC ±1.4V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
FREQUENCY AT VCC (Hz)
REJECTION (dB)
2413 G31
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
VCC = 4.1VDC ±1.4V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
FREQUENCY AT VCC (Hz)
REJECTION (dB)
2413 G32
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
FREQUENCY AT VCC (Hz)
REJECTION (dB)
2413 G33
13900 13950 14000 14050 14100
VCC = 4.1VDC ±0.7V
REF+ = 2.5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
Sleep Current vs Temperature (TA)
Conversion Current vs
Output Data Rate
Conversion Current vs
Temperature (TA)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
2413 G34
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
FO = GND
CS = GND
SCK = NC
SDO = NC VCC = 5.5V
VCC = 4.1V
VCC = 2.7V
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
2413 G35
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100 05 10 15 20 25
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = GND
TA = 25°C
FO = EXTERNAL OSC
CS = GND
SCK = NC
SDO = NC
TEMPERATURE (°C)
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
2413 G36
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
FO = GND
CS = VCC
SCK = NC
SDO = NC
VCC = 5.5V
VCC = 2.7V
VCC = 4.1V
LTC2413 L7 LJUW 1 1
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pin FuncTions
GND (Pins 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16): Ground. Multiple ground
pins internally connected for optimum ground current flow
and VCC decoupling. Connect each one of these pins to a
ground plane through a low impedance connection. All seven
pins must be connected to ground for proper operation.
VCC (Pin 2): Positive Supply Voltage. Bypass to GND
(Pin1) with a 10µF tantalum capacitor in parallel with
0.1µF ceramic capacitor as close to the part as possible.
REF+ (Pin 3), REF (Pin 4): Differential Reference Input.
The voltage on these pins can have any value between
GND and VCC as long as the reference positive input, REF+,
is maintained more positive than the reference negative
input, REF , by at least 0.1V.
IN+ (Pin 5), IN (Pin 6): Differential Analog Input. The
voltage on these pins can have any value between
GND – 0.3V and VCC + 0.3V. Within these limits, the converter
bipolar input range (VIN = IN+IN) extends from –0.5 •
(VREF) to 0.5 (VREF). Outside this input range, the converter
produces unique overrange and underrange output codes.
CS (Pin 11): Active LOW Digital Input. A LOW on this pin
enables the SDO digital output and wakes up the ADC.
Following each conversion, the ADC automatically enters
the Sleep mode and remains in this low power state as
long as CS is HIGH. A LOW-to-HIGH transition on CS
during the Data Output transfer aborts the data transfer
and starts a new conversion.
SDO (Pin 12): Three-State Digital Output. During the Data
Output period, this pin is used as serial data output. When
the chip select
CS
is HIGH (
CS
= VCC), the SDO pin is in a
high impedance state. During the Conversion and Sleep
periods, this pin is used as the conversion status output.
The conversion status can be observed by pulling
CS
LOW.
SCK (Pin 13): Bidirectional Digital Clock Pin. In Internal
Serial Clock Operation mode, SCK is used as digital output
for the internal serial interface clock during the Data Output
period. In External Serial Clock Operation mode, SCK is
used as digital input for the external serial interface clock
during the Data Output period. A weak internal pull-up is
automatically activated in Internal Serial Clock Operation
mode. The Serial Clock Operation mode is determined by
the logic level applied to the SCK pin at power up or during
the most recent falling edge of
CS
.
FO (Pin 14): Frequency Control Pin. Digital input that
controls the ADC’s notch frequencies and conversion
time. When the FO pin is connected to GND (FO = 0V),
the converter uses its internal oscillator and the digital
filter rejects 50Hz and 60Hz simultaneously. When the FO
pin is driven by an external clock signal with a frequency
fEOSC, the converter uses this signal as its system clock
and the digital filter has 87dB minimum rejection in the
range fEOSC/2560 ±14% and 110dB minimum rejection at
fEOSC/2560 ±4%.
LTc241 3
LTC2413
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FuncTional block DiagraM
TesT circuiT
AUTOCALIBRATION
AND CONTROL
DAC
DECIMATING FIR
INTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
SERIAL
INTERFACE
ADC
GND
VCC
IN+
IN
SDO
SCK
REF+
REF
CS
FO
(INT/EXT)
2413 FD
– +
+
Figure 1. Functional Block Diagram
applicaTions inForMaTion
1.69k
SDO
2413 TA03
Hi-Z TO VOH
VOL TO VOH
VOH TO Hi-Z
CLOAD = 20pF
1.69k
SDO
2413 TA04
Hi-Z TO VOL
VOH TO VOL
VOL TO Hi-Z
CLOAD = 20pF
VCC
CONVERTER OPERATION
Converter Operation Cycle
The LTC2413 is a low power, delta-sigma analog-to-digital
converter with an easy to use 3-wire serial interface.
Its operation is made up of three states. The converter
operating cycle begins with the conversion, followed by
the low power sleep state and ends with the data output
(see Figure 2). The 3-wire interface consists of serial data
output (SDO), serial clock (SCK) and chip select (CS).
Initially, the LTC2413 performs a conversion. Once the
conversion is complete, the device enters the sleep state.
While in this sleep state, power consumption is reduced
by an order of magnitude. The part remains in the sleep
state as long as CS is HIGH. The conversion result is held
indefinitely in a static shift register while the converter is
in the sleep state.
CONVERT
SLEEP
DATA OUTPUT
2413 F02
TRUE
FALSE CS = LOW
AND
SCK
Figure 2. LTC2413 State Transition Diagram
LTC2413 L7HEJWEGR 1 3
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Once CS is pulled LOW, the device begins outputting the
conversion result. There is no latency in the conversion
result. The data output corresponds to the conversion
just performed. This result is shifted out on the serial data
out pin (SDO) under the control of the serial clock (SCK).
Data is updated on the falling edge of SCK allowing the
user to reliably latch data on the rising edge of SCK (see
Figure 3). The data output state is concluded once 32 bits
are read out of the ADC or when CS is brought HIGH. The
device automatically initiates a new conversion and the
cycle repeats.
Through timing control of the CS and SCK pins, the
LTC2413 offers several flexible modes of operation
(internal or external SCK and free-running conversion
modes). These various modes do not require programming
configuration registers; moreover, they do not disturb the
cyclic operation described above. These modes of opera-
tion are described in detail in the Serial Interface Timing
Modes section.
Conversion Clock
A major advantage the delta-sigma converter offers over
conventional type converters is an on-chip digital filter
(commonly implemented as a sinc or comb filter). For
high resolution, low frequency applications, this filter
is designed to simultaneously reject line frequencies of
50Hz and 60Hz plus their harmonics. The filter rejection
performance is directly related to the accuracy of the con-
verter system clock. The LTC2413 incorporates a highly
accurate on-chip oscillator. This eliminates the need for
external frequency setting components such as crystals
or oscillators. The LTC2413 achieves a minimum of 87dB
over the range of 49Hz to 61.2Hz.
Ease of Use
The LTC2413 data output has no latency, filter settling
delay or redundant data associated with the conversion
cycle. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the
conversion and the output data. Therefore, multiplexing
multiple analog voltages is easy.
The LTC2413 performs offset and full-scale calibrations in
every conversion cycle. This calibration is transparent to
the user and has no effect on the cyclic operation described
above. The advantage of continuous calibration is extreme
stability of offset and full-scale readings with respect to
time, supply voltage change and temperature drift.
Power-Up Sequence
The LTC2413 automatically enters an internal reset state
when the power supply voltage VCC drops below approxi-
mately 2.2V. This feature guarantees the integrity of the
conversion result and of the serial interface mode selec-
tion. (See the 2-wire I/O sections in the Serial Interface
Timing Modes section.)
When the VCC voltage rises above this critical threshold,
the converter creates an internal power-on-reset (POR)
signal with a duration of approximately 0.5ms. The POR
signal clears all internal registers. Following the POR
signal, the LTC2413 starts a normal conversion cycle and
follows the succession of states described above. The first
conversion result following POR is accurate within the
specifications of the device if the power supply voltage is
restored within the operating range (2.7V to 5.5V) before
the end of the POR time interval.
Reference Voltage Range
This converter accepts a truly differential external reference
voltage. The absolute/common mode voltage specification
for the REF+ and REF pins covers the entire range from
GND to VCC. For correct converter operation, the REF+ pin
must always be more positive than the REF pin.
The LTC2413 can accept a differential reference voltage
from 0.1V to VCC. The converter output noise is determined
by the thermal noise of the front-end circuits, and as such,
its value in nanovolts is nearly constant with reference
voltage. A decrease in reference voltage will not signifi-
cantly improve the converter’s effective resolution. On the
other hand, a reduced reference voltage will improve the
converter’s overall INL performance. A reduced reference
voltage will also improve the converter performance when
operated with an external conversion clock (external FO
signal) at substantially higher output data rates (see the
Output Data Rate section).
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Input Voltage Range
The analog input is truly differential with an absolute/
common mode range for the IN+ and IN input pins
extending from GND – 0.3V to VCC + 0.3V. Outside
these limits, the ESD protection devices begin to turn
on and the errors due to input leakage current increase
rapidly. Within these limits, the LTC2413 converts the
bipolar differential input signal, VIN = IN+IN, from
FS = –0.5 VREF to +FS = 0.5 VREF where VREF =
REF+REF. Outside this range, the converter indicates
the overrange or the underrange condition using distinct
output codes.
Input signals applied to IN+ and IN pins may extend by
300mV below ground and above VCC. In order to limit any
fault current, resistors of up to 5k may be added in series
with the IN+ and IN pins without affecting the perfor-
mance of the device. In the physical layout, it is important
to maintain the parasitic capacitance of the connection
between these series resistors and the corresponding
pins as low as possible; therefore, the resistors should
be located as close as practical to the pins. The effect of
the series resistance on the converter accuracy can be
evaluated from the curves presented in the Input Current/
Reference Current sections. In addition, series resistors
will introduce a temperature dependent offset error due to
the input leakage current. A 1nA input leakage current will
develop a 1ppm offset error on a 5k resistor if VREF = 5V.
This error has a very strong temperature dependency.
Output Data Format
The LTC2413 serial output data stream is 32 bits long.
The first 3 bits represent status information indicating
the sign and conversion state. The next 24 bits are the
conversion result, MSB first. The remaining 5 bits are
sub LSBs beyond the 24-bit level that may be included
in averaging or discarded without loss of resolution. The
third and fourth bits together are also used to indicate
an underrange condition (the differential input voltage
is belowFS) or an overrange condition (the differential
input voltage is above +FS).
Bit 31 (first output bit) is the end of conversion (EOC)
indicator. This bit is available at the SDO pin during the
conversion and sleep states whenever the CS pin is LOW.
This bit is HIGH during the conversion and goes LOW
when the conversion is complete.
Bit 30 (second output bit) is a dummy bit (DMY) and is
always LOW.
Bit 29 (third output bit) is the conversion result sign
indicator (SIG). If VIN is >0, this bit is HIGH. If VIN is <0,
this bit is LOW.
Bit 28 (fourth output bit) is the most significant bit (MSB) of
the result. This bit in conjunction with Bit 29 also provides
the underrange or overrange indication. If both Bit 29 and
Bit 28 are HIGH, the differential input voltage is above +FS.
If both Bit 29 and Bit 28 are LOW, the differential input
voltage is below –FS.
The function of these bits is summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. LTC2413 Status Bits
Input Range Bit 31
EOC
Bit 30
DMY
Bit 29
SIG
Bit 28
MSB
VIN ≥ 0.5 • VREF 0 0 1 1
0V ≤ VIN < 0.5 • VREF 0 0 1 0
0.5 • VREF ≤ VIN < 0V 0 0 0 1
VIN < –0.5 • VREF 0 0 0 0
Bits 28-5 are the 24-bit conversion result MSB first.
Bit 5 is the least significant bit (LSB).
Bits 4-0 are sub LSBs below the 24-bit level. Bits 4-0
may be included in averaging or discarded without loss
of resolution.
Data is shifted out of the SDO pin under control of the
serial clock (SCK), see Figure 3. Whenever CS is HIGH,
SDO remains high impedance and any externally gener-
ated SCK clock pulses are ignored by the internal data
out shift register.
In order to shift the conversion result out of the device,
CS must first be driven LOW. EOC is seen at the SDO pin
of the device once CS is pulled LOW. EOC changes real
time from HIGH to LOW at the completion of a conversion.
This signal may be used as an interrupt for an external
microcontroller. Bit 31 (EOC) can be captured on the first
rising edge of SCK. Bit 30 is shifted out of the device on
the first falling edge of SCK. The final data bit (Bit 0) is
shifted out on the falling edge of the 31st SCK and may
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be latched on the rising edge of the 32nd SCK pulse. On
the falling edge of the 32nd SCK pulse, SDO goes HIGH
indicating the initiation of a new conversion cycle. This
bit serves as EOC (Bit 31) for the next conversion cycle.
Table 2 summarizes the output data format.
As long as the voltage on the IN+ and IN pins is main-
tained within the 0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) absolute maximum
operating range, a conversion result is generated for any
differential input voltage VIN from –FS = –0.5 VREF to
+FS = 0.5 VREF. For differential input voltages greater
than +FS, the conversion result is clamped to the value
corresponding to the +FS + 1LSB. For differential input
voltages belowFS, the conversion result is clamped to
the value corresponding to –FS – 1LSB.
Simultaneous Frequency Rejection
The LTC2413 internal oscillator provides better than 87dB
normal mode rejection over the range of 49Hz to 61.2Hz
as shown in Figure 4. For this simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz
rejection, FO should be connected to GND.
When a fundamental rejection frequency different from the
range 49Hz to 61.2Hz is required or when the converter
must be sychronized with an outside source, the LTC2413
can operate with an external conversion clock. The conveter
automatically detects the presence of an external clock
signal at the FO pin and turns off the internal oscillator.
The frequency fEOSC of the external signal must be at least
2560Hz to be detected. The external clock signal duty cycle
is not significant as long as the minimum and maximum
specifications for the high and low periods, tHEO and tLEO,
are observed.
MSBSIG“0”
1 2 3 4 5 26 27 32
BIT 0BIT 27 BIT 5
LSB24
BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
SDO
SCK
CS
EOC
BIT 31
SLEEP DATA OUTPUT CONVERSION
2413 F03
Hi-Z
Figure 3. Output Data Timing
Table 2. LTC2413 Output Data Format
Differential Input Voltage
VIN*
Bit 31
EOC
Bit 30
DMY
Bit 29
SIG
Bit 28
MSB
Bit 27 Bit 26 Bit 25 Bit 0
VIN* ≥ 0.5 • VREF** 00110000
0.5 • VREF** – 1LSB 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
0.25 • VREF** 00101000
0.25 • VREF** – 1LSB 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
0 00100000
–1LSB 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
0.25 • VREF** 00011000
0.25 • VREF** – 1LSB 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
0.5 • VREF** 00010000
VIN* < –0.5 • VREF** 00001111
*The differential input voltage VIN = IN+ – IN.
**The differential reference voltage VREF = REF+ – REF.
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While operating with an external conversion clock of a
frequency fEOSC, the LTC2413 provides better than 110dB
normal mode rejection in a frequency range fEOSC/2560
±4%. The normal mode rejection as a function of the input
frequency deviation from fEOSC/2560 is shown in Figure 5.
Whenever an external clock is not present at the FO pin
the converter automatically activates its internal oscilla-
tor and enters the Internal Conversion Clock mode. The
LTC2413 operation will not be disturbed if the change of
conversion clock source occurs during the sleep state
or during the data output state while the converter uses
an external serial clock. If the change occurs during the
conversion state, the result of the conversion in progress
may be outside specifications but the following conver-
sions will not be affected. If the change occurs during the
data output state and the converter is in the Internal SCK
mode, the serial clock duty cycle may be affected but the
serial data stream will remain valid.
Table 3 summarizes the duration of each state and the
achievable output data rate as a function of FO.
SERIAL INTERFACE PINS
The LTC2413 transmits the conversion results and receives
the start of conversion command through a synchronous
3-wire interface. During the conversion and sleep states,
this interface can be used to assess the converter status
and during the data output state it is used to read the
conversion result.
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY (Hz)
NORMAL MODE REECTION RATIO (dB)
2413 F04
80
90
100
100
120
130
140
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY
DEVIATION FROM NOTCH FREQUENCY fEOSC/2560(%)
12 8 4 0 4 8 12
NORMAL MODE REJECTION (dB)
2413 F05
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
Figure 5. LTC2413 Normal Mode Rejection When
Using an External Oscillator of Frequency fEOSC
Figure 4. LTC2413 Normal Mode Rejection
When Using an Internal Oscillator
Table 3. LTC2413 State Duration
State Operating Mode Duration
CONVERT Internal Oscillator FO = LOW
Simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz Rejection
147ms, Output Data Rate ≤ 6.8 Readings/s
External Oscillator FO = External Oscillator
with Frequency fEOSC kHz
(fEOSC/2560 Rejection)
20510/fEOSCs, Output Data Rate ≤ fEOSC/20510 Readings/s
SLEEP As Long As CS = HIGH Until CS = LOW and SCK
DATA OUTPUT Internal Serial Clock FO = LOW
(Internal Oscillator)
As Long As CS = LOW But Not Longer Than 1.83ms
(32 SCK cycles)
FO = External Oscillator with
Frequency fEOSC kHz
As Long As CS = LOW But Not Longer Than 256/fEOSCms
(32 SCK cycles)
External Serial Clock with
Frequency fSCK kHz
As Long As CS = LOW But Not Longer Than 32/fSCKms
(32 SCK cycles)
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Serial Clock Input/Output (SCK)
The serial clock signal present on SCK (Pin 13) is used to
synchronize the data transfer. Each bit of data is shifted
out the SDO pin on the falling edge of the serial clock.
In the Internal SCK mode of operation, the SCK pin is an
output and the LTC2413 creates its own serial clock by
dividing the internal conversion clock by 8. In the External
SCK mode of operation, the SCK pin is used as input. The
internal or external SCK mode is selected on power-up
and then reselected every time a HIGH-to-LOW transition
is detected at the CS pin. If SCK is HIGH or floating at
power-up or during this transition, the converter enters the
internal SCK mode. If SCK is LOW at power-up or during
this transition, the converter enters the external SCK mode.
Serial Data Output (SDO)
The serial data output pin, SDO (Pin 12), provides the
result of the last conversion as a serial bit stream (MSB
first) during the data output state. In addition, the SDO
pin is used as an end of conversion indicator during the
conversion and sleep states.
When CS (Pin 11) is HIGH, the SDO driver is switched
to a high impedance state. This allows sharing the serial
interface with other devices. If CS is LOW during the
convert or sleep state, SDO will output EOC. If CS is LOW
during the conversion phase, the EOC bit appears HIGH on
the SDO pin. Once the conversion is complete, EOC goes
LOW. The device remains in the sleep state until the first
rising edge of SCK occurs while CS = LOW.
Chip Select Input (CS)
The active LOW chip select, CS (Pin 11), is used to test the
conversion status and to enable the data output transfer
as described in the previous sections.
In addition, the CS signal can be used to trigger a new
conversion cycle before the entire serial data transfer has
been completed. The LTC2413 will abort any serial data
transfer in progress and start a new conversion cycle any-
time a LOW-to-HIGH transition is detected at the CS pin
after the converter has entered the data output state (i.e.,
after the first rising edge of SCK occurs with CS=LOW).
Finally,
CS
can be used to control the free-running modes
of operation, see Serial Interface Timing Modes section.
Grounding
CS
will force the ADC to continuously con-
vert at the maximum output rate selected by FO. Tying
a capacitor to
CS
will reduce the output rate and power
dissipation by a factor proportional to the capacitor’s
value, see Figures 13 to 15.
SERIAL INTERFACE TIMING MODES
The LTC2413’s 3-wire interface is SPI and MICROWIRE
compatible. This interface offers several flexible modes
of operation. These include internal/external serial clock,
2- or 3-wire I/O, single cycle conversion and autostart. The
following sections describe each of these serial interface
timing modes in detail. In all these cases, the converter
can use the internal oscillator (FO = LOW) or an external
oscillator connected to the FO pin. Refer to Table4 for a
summary.
External Serial Clock, Single Cycle Operation
(SPI/MICROWIRE Compatible)
This timing mode uses an external serial clock to shift
out the conversion result and a CS signal to monitor and
control the state of the conversion cycle, see Figure 6.
Table 4. LTC2413 Interface Timing Modes
Configuration SCK Source Conversion Cycle Control Data Output Control Connection and Waveforms
External SCK, Single Cycle Conversion External CS and SCK CS and SCK Figures 6, 7
External SCK, 2-Wire I/O External SCK SCK Figure 8
Internal SCK, Single Cycle Conversion Internal CS CS Figures 9, 10
Internal SCK, 2-Wire I/O, Continuous Conversion Internal Continuous Internal Figure 11
Internal SCK, Autostart Conversion Internal CEXT Internal Figure 12
LTc241 3 [WM—e2—
LTC2413
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For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
The serial clock mode is selected on the falling edge of
CS. To select the external serial clock mode, the serial
clock pin (SCK) must be LOW during each CS falling edge.
The serial data output pin (SDO) is Hi-Z as long as CS is
HIGH. At any time during the conversion cycle, CS may be
pulled LOW in order to monitor the state of the converter.
While CS is pulled LOW, EOC is output to the SDO pin.
EOC=1 while a conversion is in progress and EOC = 0
if the device is in the sleep state. Independent of CS, the
device automatically enters the low power sleep state once
the conversion is complete.
When the device is in the sleep state (
EOC
= 0), its con-
version result is held in an internal static shift register.
The device remains in the sleep state until the first rising
edge of SCK is seen while
CS
is LOW. Data is
shifted out
the SDO pin on each falling edge of SCK. This enables
external circuitry to latch the output on the rising edge of
SCK.
EOC
can be latched on the first rising edge of SCK
and the last bit of the conversion result can be latched
on the 32nd rising edge of SCK. On the 32nd falling edge
of SCK, the device begins a new conversion. SDO goes
HIGH (
EOC
= 1) indicating a conversion is in progress.
At the conclusion of the data cycle, CS may remain LOW
and EOC monitored as an end-of-conversion interrupt.
Alternatively, CS may be driven HIGH setting SDO to Hi-Z.
applicaTions inForMaTion
As described above, CS may be pulled LOW at any time
in order to monitor the conversion status.
Typically, CS remains LOW during the data output state.
However, the data output state may be aborted by pull-
ing CS HIGH anytime between the first rising edge and
the 32nd falling edge of SCK, see Figure 7. On the rising
edge of CS, the device aborts the data output state and
immediately initiates a new conversion. This is useful for
systems not requiring all 32 bits of output data, aborting
an invalid conversion cycle or synchronizing the start of
a conversion.
External Serial Clock, 2-Wire I/O
This timing mode utilizes a 2-wire serial I/O interface. The
conversion result is shifted out of the device by an exter-
nally generated serial clock (SCK) signal, see Figure 8. CS
may be permanently tied to ground, simplifying the user
interface or isolation barrier.
The external serial clock mode is selected at the end of the
power-on reset (POR) cycle. The POR cycle is concluded
approximately 0.5ms after VCC exceeds 2.2V. The level
applied to SCK at this time determines if SCK is internal
or external. SCK must be driven LOW prior to the end of
POR in order to enter the external serial clock timing mode.
EOC
BIT 31
SDO
SCK
(EXTERNAL)
CS
TEST EOC
SUB LSBMSBSIG
BIT 0
LSB
BIT 5BIT 27 BIT 26BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
SLEEP DATA OUTPUT CONVERSION
2413 F06
CONVERSION
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS 50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
Hi-ZHi-ZHi-Z
TEST EOCTEST EOC
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
3-WIRE
SPI INTERFACE
Figure 6. External Serial Clock, Single Cycle Operation
LTC2413 Vk—a_ _‘*\/_ E WVHL—DDDCSC—ié-m M _Q_ H; H Ar i L7HEJWEGR 1 9
LTC2413
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For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Since CS is tied LOW, the end-of-conversion (EOC) can
be continuously monitored at the SDO pin during the
convert and sleep states. EOC may be used as an interrupt
to an external controller indicating the conversion result
is ready. EOC = 1 while the conversion is in progress and
EOC=0 once the conversion enters the low power sleep
state. On the falling edge of EOC, the conversion result
is loaded into an internal static shift register. The device
remains in the sleep state until the first rising edge of SCK.
Data is shifted out the SDO pin on each falling edge of
SCK enabling external circuitry to latch data on the rising
edge of SCK. EOC can be latched on the first rising edge
of SCK. On the 32nd falling edge of SCK, SDO goes HIGH
(EOC=1) indicating a new conversion has begun.
Internal Serial Clock, Single Cycle Operation
This timing mode uses an internal serial clock to shift
out the conversion result and a CS signal to monitor and
control the state of the conversion cycle, see Figure 9.
In order to select the internal serial clock timing mode,
the serial clock pin (SCK) must be floating (Hi-Z) or pulled
HIGH prior to the falling edge of CS. The device will not
enter the internal serial clock mode if SCK is driven LOW
on the falling edge of CS. An internal weak pull-up resis-
tor is active on the SCK pin during the falling edge of CS;
therefore, the internal serial clock timing mode is automati-
cally selected if SCK is not externally driven.
The serial data output pin (SDO) is Hi-Z as long as CS is
HIGH. At any time during the conversion cycle, CS may be
pulled LOW in order to monitor the state of the converter.
Once CS is pulled LOW, SCK goes LOW and EOC is output
to the SDO pin. EOC = 1 while a conversion is in progress
and EOC = 0 if the device is in the sleep state.
When testing EOC, if the conversion is complete (EOC = 0),
the device will exit the sleep state and enter the data output
state if CS remains LOW. In order to prevent the device
from exiting the low power sleep state, CS must be pulled
HIGH before the first rising edge of SCK. In the internal
SCK timing mode, SCK goes HIGH and the device begins
outputting data at time tEOCtest after the falling edge of CS
(if EOC = 0) or tEOCtest after EOC goes LOW (if CS is LOW
during the falling edge of EOC). The value of tEOCtest is 26µs
if the device is using its internal oscillator (F0 = logic LOW).
If FO is driven by an external oscillator of frequency fEOSC,
Figure 7. External Serial Clock, Reduced Data Output Length
SDO
SCK
(EXTERNAL)
CS
DATA OUTPUT
CONVERSIONSLEEP SLEEP
TEST EOC TEST EOC
DATA OUTPUT
Hi-Z Hi-ZHi-Z
CONVERSION
2413 F07
MSBSIG
BIT 8BIT 27 BIT 9BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
EOC
BIT 31BIT 0
EOC
Hi-Z
TEST EOC
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
3-WIRE
SPI INTERFACE
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS 50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
LTC241 3 lug: II E "‘l I I I I IJLJ“ #: gIl ‘4 I”: % l; :I 4M3 FT —w+\‘/XIIIIx:IIx:IILML 20 L7ELUEN2
LTC2413
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For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
EOC
BIT 31
SDO
SCK
(EXTERNAL)
CS
MSBSIG
BIT 0
LSB24
BIT 5BIT 27 BIT 26BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
SLEEP DATA OUTPUT CONVERSION
2413 F08
CONVERSION
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
2-WIRE I/O
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS 50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
SDO
SCK
(INTERNAL)
CS
MSBSIG
BIT 0
LSB24
BIT 5 TEST EOC
BIT 27 BIT 26BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
EOC
BIT 31
SLEEP DATA OUTPUT CONVERSIONCONVERSION
2413 F09
<tEOCtest
VCC
10k
Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z
TEST EOC
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
3-WIRE
SPI INTERFACE
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS
50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
Figure 8. External Serial Clock, CS = 0 Operation
Figure 9. Internal Serial Clock, Single Cycle Operation
LTC2413 ALZTR/FL }_/—**v— fl ‘ ‘ z—mwa ‘ /—x—x—x—*:X——M— ,—\: # KWUTE L7 LJUW 2 1
LTC2413
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then tEOCtest is 3.6/fEOSC. If CS is pulled HIGH before time
tEOCtest, the device remains in the sleep state. The conver-
sion result is held in the internal static shift register.
If CS remains LOW longer than tEOCtest, the first rising
edge of SCK will occur and the conversion result is serially
shifted out of the SDO pin. The data output cycle begins
on this first rising edge of SCK and concludes after the
32nd rising edge. Data is shifted out the SDO pin on each
falling edge of SCK. The internally generated serial clock
is output to the SCK pin. This signal may be used to shift
the conversion result into external circuitry. EOC can be
latched on the first rising edge of SCK and the last bit of
the conversion result on the 32nd rising edge of SCK.
After the 32nd rising edge, SDO goes HIGH (EOC = 1),
SCK stays HIGH and a new conversion starts.
Typically, CS remains LOW during the data output state.
However, the data output state may be aborted by pulling
CS HIGH anytime between the first and 32nd rising edge
of SCK, see Figure 10. On the rising edge of CS, the device
aborts the data output state and immediately initiates a
applicaTions inForMaTion
new conversion. This is useful for systems not requiring
all 32 bits of output data, aborting an invalid conversion
cycle, or synchronizing the start of a conversion. If CS is
pulled HIGH while the converter is driving SCK LOW, the
internal pull-up is not available to restore SCK to a logic
HIGH state. This will cause the device to exit the internal
serial clock mode on the next falling edge of CS. This can
be avoided by adding an external 10k pull-up resistor to the
SCK pin or by never pulling CS HIGH when SCK is LOW.
Whenever SCK is LOW, the LTC2413’s internal pull-up at
pin SCK is disabled. Normally, SCK is not externally driven
if the device is in the internal SCK timing mode. However,
certain applications may require an external driver on SCK.
If this driver goes Hi-Z after outputting a LOW signal, the
LTC2413’s internal pull-up remains disabled. Hence, SCK
remains LOW. On the next falling edge of CS, the device
is switched to the external SCK timing mode. By adding
an external 10k pull-up resistor to SCK, this pin goes
HIGH once the external driver goes Hi-Z. On the next CS
falling edge, the device will remain in the internal SCK
timing mode.
Figure 10. Internal Serial Clock, Reduced Data Output Length
SDO
SCK
(INTERNAL)
CS
>tEOCtest
MSBSIG
BIT 8
TEST EOCTEST EOC BIT 27 BIT 26BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
EOC
BIT 31
EOC
BIT 0
SLEEP DATA OUTPUT
Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z
DATA OUTPUT
CONVERSIONCONVERSIONSLEEP
2413 F10
<tEOCtest
VCC
10k
TEST EOC
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
3-WIRE
SPI INTERFACE
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS
50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
LTC241 3 L7LJCUEN2
LTC2413
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A similar situation may occur during the sleep state when
CS is pulsed HIGH-LOW-HIGH in order to test the conver-
sion status. If the device is in the sleep state (EOC = 0),
SCK will go LOW. Once CS goes HIGH (within the time
period defined above as tEOCtest), the internal pull-up is
activated. For a heavy capacitive load on the SCK pin,
the internal pull-up may not be adequate to return SCK
to a HIGH level before CS goes low again. This is not a
concern under normal conditions where CS remains LOW
after detecting EOC = 0. This situation is easily overcome
by adding an external 10k pull-up resistor to the SCK pin.
Internal Serial Clock, 2-Wire I/O,
Continuous Conversion
This timing mode uses a 2-wire, all output (SCK and SDO)
interface. The conversion result is shifted out of the device
by an internally generated serial clock (SCK) signal, see
Figure 11. CS may be permanently tied to ground, sim-
plifying the user interface or isolation barrier.
The internal serial clock mode is selected at the end of the
power-on reset (POR) cycle. The POR cycle is concluded
approximately 0.5ms after VCC exceeds 2.2V. An internal
applicaTions inForMaTion
weak pull-up is active during the POR cycle; therefore, the
internal serial clock timing mode is automatically selected
if SCK is not externally driven LOW (if SCK is loaded such
that the internal pull-up cannot pull the pin HIGH, the
external SCK mode will be selected).
During the conversion, the SCK and the serial data output
pin (SDO) are HIGH (EOC = 1). Once the conversion is
complete, SCK and SDO go LOW (
EOC
= 0) indicating
the conversion has finished and the device has entered
the low power sleep state. The part remains in the sleep
state a minimum amount of time (1/2 the internal SCK
period) then immediately begins outputting data. The
data output cycle begins on the first rising edge of SCK
and ends after the 32nd rising edge. Data is shifted out
the SDO pin on each falling edge of SCK. The internally
generated serial clock is output to the SCK pin. This
signal may be used to shift the conversion result into
external circuitry.
EOC
can be latched on the first rising
edge of SCK and the last bit of the conversion result can
be latched on the 32nd rising edge of SCK. After the 32nd
rising edge, SDO goes HIGH (
EOC
= 1) indicating a new
conversion is in progress. SCK remains HIGH during
the conversion.
Figure 11. Internal Serial Clock, CS = 0 Continuous Operation
SDO
SCK
(INTERNAL)
CS
LSB24
MSBSIG
BIT 5 BIT 0BIT 27 BIT 26BIT 28BIT 29BIT 30
EOC
BIT 31
SLEEP
DATA OUTPUT CONVERSIONCONVERSION
2413 F11
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS 50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
2-WIRE I/O
LTC2413 4+1; L{”: E :} E “1; 7—\ _Cx::X:_‘— \f—i L7HEJWEGR 23
LTC2413
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For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Internal Serial Clock, Autostart Conversion
This timing mode is identical to the internal serial clock,
2-wire I/O described above with one additional feature.
Instead of grounding CS, an external timing capacitor is
tied to CS.
While the conversion is in progress, the CS pin is held
HIGH by an internal weak pull-up. Once the conversion is
complete, the device enters the low power sleep state and
an internal 25nA current source begins discharging the
capacitor tied to CS, see Figure 12. The time the converter
spends in the sleep state is determined by the value of the
external timing capacitor, see Figures 13 and 14. Once the
voltage at CS falls below an internal threshold (1.4V),
the device automatically begins outputting data. The data
output cycle begins on the first rising edge of SCK and
ends on the 32nd rising edge. Data is shifted out the SDO
pin on each falling edge of SCK. The internally generated
serial clock is output to the SCK pin. This signal may be
used to shift the conversion result into external circuitry.
After the 32nd rising edge, CS is pulled HIGH and a new
conversion is immediately started. This is useful in appli-
cations requiring periodic monitoring and ultralow power.
Figure 15 shows the average supply current as a function
of capacitance on CS.
It should be noticed that the external capacitor discharge
current is kept very small in order to decrease the con-
verter power dissipation in the sleep state. In the autostart
mode, the analog voltage on the CS pin cannot be observed
without disturbing the converter operation using a regular
oscilloscope probe. When using this configuration, it is
important to minimize the external leakage current at
the CS pin by using a low leakage external capacitor and
properly cleaning the PCB surface.
The internal serial clock mode is selected every time
the voltage on the CS pin crosses an internal threshold
voltage. An internal weak pull-up at the SCK pin is active
Figure 12. Internal Serial Clock, Autostart Operation
SDO
Hi-ZHi-Z
SCK
(INTERNAL)
CS
VCC
GND
2413 F12
BIT 0
SIG
BIT 29BIT 30
SLEEP DATA OUTPUT CONVERSIONCONVERSION
EOC
BIT 31
VCC FO
REF+
REF
SCK
IN+
IN
SDO
GND
CS
2 14
3
4
13
5
6
12
1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16
11
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
0.1V TO VCC
ANALOG INPUT RANGE
0.5VREF TO 0.5VREF
1µF
2.7V TO 5.5V
LTC2413
CEXT
= EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
= INTERNAL OSC/SIMULTANEOUS 50Hz/60Hz REJECTION
2-WIRE I/O
LTc241 3
LTC2413
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For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
while CS is discharging; therefore, the internal serial clock
timing mode is automatically selected if SCK is floating. It
is important to ensure there are no external drivers pulling
SCK LOW while CS is discharging.
PRESERVING THE CONVERTER ACCURACY
The LTC2413 is designed to reduce as much as possible
the conversion result sensitivity to device decoupling, PCB
layout, antialiasing circuits, line frequency perturbations
and so on. Nevertheless, in order to preserve the extreme
accuracy capability of this part, some simple precautions
are desirable.
Digital Signal Levels
The LTC2413’s digital interface is easy to use. Its digital
inputs (FO, CS and SCK in External SCK mode of operation)
accept standard TTL/CMOS logic levels and the internal
hysteresis receivers can tolerate edge rates as slow as
100µs. However, some considerations are required to
take advantage of the exceptional accuracy and low supply
current of this converter.
The digital output signals (SDO and SCK in Internal SCK
mode of operation) are less of a concern because they are
not generally active during the conversion state.
While a digital input signal is in the range 0.5V to
(VCC–0.5V), the CMOS input receiver draws additional
current from the power supply. It should be noted that,
when any one of the digital input signals (FO, CS and SCK
in External SCK mode of operation) is within this range,
the LTC2413 power supply current may increase even if
the signal in question is at a valid logic level. For micro-
power operation, it is recommended to drive all digital
input signals to full CMOS levels [VIL < 0.4V and VIH >
(VCC – 0.4V)].
During the conversion period, the undershoot and/or
overshoot of a fast digital signal connected to the LTC2413
pins may severely disturb the analog to digital conversion
process. Undershoot and overshoot can occur because
of the impedance mismatch at the converter pin when the
transition time of an external control signal is less than
twice the propagation delay from the driver to LTC2413.
For reference, on a regular FR-4 board, signal propagation
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 13. CS Capacitance vs tSAMPLE
Figure 14. CS Capacitance vs Output Rate
Figure 15. CS Capacitance vs Supply Current
CAPACITANCE ON CS (pF)
1
5
6
7
1000 10000
2413 F13
4
3
10 100 100000
2
1
0
tSAMPLE (SEC)
VCC = 5V
VCC = 3V
CAPACITANCE ON CS (pF)
0
SAMPLE RATE (Hz)
3
4
5
1000 100000
2413 F14
2
1
010 100 10000
6
7
8
VCC = 5V
VCC = 3V
CAPACITANCE ON CS (pF)
1
0
SUPPLY CURRENT (µARMS)
50
100
150
200
250
300
10 100 1000 10000
2413 F15
100000
VCC = 5V
VCC = 3V
LTC2413 L7HEJWEGR 25
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For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
velocity is approximately 183ps/inch for internal traces
and 170ps/inch for surface traces. Thus, a driver gen-
erating a control signal with a minimum transition time
of 1ns must be connected to the converter pin through
a trace shorter than 2.5 inches. This problem becomes
particularly difficult when shared control lines are used
and multiple reflections may occur. The solution is to
carefully terminate all transmission lines close to their
characteristic impedance.
Parallel termination near the LTC2413 pin will eliminate
this problem but will increase the driver power dissipa-
tion. A series resistor between 27Ω and 56Ω placed near
the driver or near the LTC2413 pin will also eliminate this
problem without additional power dissipation. The actual
resistor value depends upon the trace impedance and
connection topology.
An alternate solution is to reduce the edge rate of the
control signals. It should be noted that using very slow
edges will increase the converter power supply current
during the transition time. The multiple ground pins used
in this package configuration, as well as the differential
input and reference architecture, reduce substantially the
converter’s sensitivity to ground currents.
Particular attention must be given to the connection of
the FO signal when the LTC2413 is used with an external
conversion clock. This clock is active during the conver-
sion time and the normal mode rejection provided by the
internal digital filter is not very high at this frequency. A
normal mode signal of this frequency at the converter
reference terminals may result in DC gain and INL errors. A
normal mode signal of this frequency at the converter input
terminals may result in a DC offset error. Such perturba-
tions may occur due to asymmetric capacitive coupling
between the FO signal trace and the converter input and/
or reference connection traces. An immediate solution is
to maintain maximum possible separation between the FO
signal trace and the input/reference signals. When the FO
signal is parallel terminated near the converter, substantial
AC current is flowing in the loop formed by the FO con-
nection trace, the termination and the ground return path.
Thus, perturbation signals may be inductively coupled into
the converter input and/or reference. In this situation, the
user must reduce to a minimum the loop area for the FO
signal as well as the loop area for the differential input
and reference connections.
Driving the Input and Reference
The input and reference pins of the LTC2413 converter
are directly connected to a network of sampling capaci-
tors. Depending upon the relation between the differential
input voltage and the differential reference voltage, these
capacitors are switching between these four pins transfer-
ing small amounts of charge in the process. A simplified
equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 16.
For a simple approximation, the source impedance RS
driving an analog input pin (IN+, IN, REF+ or REF) can
be considered to form, together with R
SW and CEQ (see
Figure 16), a first order passive network with a time
constant τ = (RS + RSW) CEQ. The converter is able to
sample the input signal with better than 1ppm accuracy if
the sampling period is at least 14 times greater than the
input circuit time constant τ. The sampling process on
the four input analog pins is quasi-independent so each
time constant should be considered by itself and, under
worst-case circumstances, the errors may add.
When using the internal oscillator (FO = LOW), the
LTC2413’s front-end switched-capacitor network is
clocked at 69900Hz corresponding to a 14.3µs sampling
period. Thus, for settling errors of less than 1ppm, the
driving source impedance should be chosen such that
τ≤14.3µs/14 = 1.02µs. When an external oscillator of
frequency fEOSC is used, the sampling period is 2/fEOSC
and, for a settling error of less than 1ppm, τ ≤ 0.14/fEOSC.
Input Current
If complete settling occurs on the input, conversion re-
sults will be unaffected by the dynamic input current. An
incomplete settling of the input signal sampling process
may result in gain and offset errors, but it will not degrade
the INL performance of the converter. Figure 16 shows the
mathematical expressions for the average bias currents
flowing through the IN+ and IN pins as a result of the
sampling charge transfers when integrated over a sub-
stantial time period (longer than 64 internal clock cycles).
LTC241 3 L7LJCUEN2 IFIFIII/ 26
LTC2413
26
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
The effect of this input dynamic current can be analyzed
using the test circuit of Figure 17. The CPAR capacitor
includes the LTC2413 pin capacitance (5pF typical) plus
the capacitance of the test fixture used to obtain the results
shown in Figures 18 and 19. A careful implementation can
bring the total input capacitance (CIN + CPAR) closer to 5pF
thus achieving better performance than the one predicted
by Figures 18 and 19. For simplicity, two distinct situations
can be considered.
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 16. LTC2413 Equivalent Analog Input Circuit
Figure 17. An RC Network at IN+ and IN
Figure 19. –FS Error vs RSOURCE at IN+ or IN (Small CIN)Figure 18. +FS Error vs RSOURCE at IN+ or IN (Small CIN)
VREF+
VIN+
VCC
RSW (TYP)
20k
ILEAK
ILEAK
VCC
ILEAK
ILEAK
VCC
RSW (TYP)
20k
CEQ
18pF
(TYP)
RSW (TYP)
20k
ILEAK
IIN+
VIN
IIN
IREF+
IREF
2413 F16
ILEAK
VCC
ILEAK
ILEAK
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
fSW = 69900Hz INTERNAL OSCILLATOR
fSW = 0.5 • fEOSC EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
VREF
RSW (TYP)
20k
CIN
2413 F17
VINCM + 0.5VIN
RSOURCE
IN+
LTC2413
CPAR
20pF
CIN
VINCM – 0.5VIN
RSOURCE
IN
CPAR
20pF
RSOURCE (Ω)
1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05
+FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F18
50
40
30
20
10
0
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 5V
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CIN = 0.01µF
CIN = 0.001µF
CIN = 100pF
CIN = 0pF
RSOURCE (Ω)
1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05
FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F19
0
10
20
30
40
50
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CIN = 0.01µF
CIN = 0.001µF
CIN = 100pF
CIN = 0pF
IINVV V
R
IINVV V
R
I REF VV V
R
V
VR
I REF VV V
R
V
VR
where
AVG
IN INCM REFCM
EQ
AVG
IN INCM REFCM
EQ
AVG
REF INCM REFCM
EQ
IN
REFEQ
AVG
REF INCM REFCM
EQ
IN
REF EQ
+
+
()
=+−
()
=−+
()
=•− +
()
=−• −+
+
05
05
15
05
15
05
2
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
::
.
./
V REF REF
VREF REF
VININ
VIN IN
RMINTERNAL OSCILLATOR
RfEXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
REF
REFCM
IN
INCM
EQ
EQ EOSC
=−
=+
=−
=
=
=•
()
+−
+−
+−
+−
2
2
397
0 555 1012
LTC2413 L7Hߤ0g 27
LTC2413
27
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
For relatively small values of input capacitance (CIN <
0.01µF), the voltage on the sampling capacitor settles
almost completely and relatively large values for the source
impedance result in only small errors. Such values for CIN
will deteriorate the converter offset and gain performance
without significant benefits of signal filtering and the user
is advised to avoid them. Nevertheless, when small val-
ues of CIN are unavoidably present as parasitics of input
multiplexers, wires, connectors or sensors, the LTC2413
can maintain its exceptional accuracy while operating
with relative large values of source resistance as shown in
Figures 18 and 19. These measured results may be slightly
different from the first order approximation suggested
earlier because they include the effect of the actual second
order input network together with the nonlinear settling
process of the input amplifiers. For small CIN values, the
settling on IN+ and IN occurs almost independently and
there is little benefit in trying to match the source imped-
ance for the two pins.
Larger values of input capacitors (CIN > 0.01µF) may be
required in certain configurations for antialiasing or gen-
eral input signal filtering. Such capacitors will average the
input sampling charge and the external source resistance
will see a quasi constant input differential impedance.
When internal oscillator is used (FO= LOW), the typical
differential input resistance is 2which will generate
a gain error of approximately 0.25ppm for each ohm of
source resistance driving IN+ or IN. When FO is driven
by an external oscillator with a frequency fEOSC (exter-
nal conversion clock operation), the typical differential
input resistance is 0.28 1012/fEOSCΩ and each ohm of
source resistance driving IN+ or IN will result in
1.78 106 fEOSCppm gain error. The effect of the source
resistance on the two input pins is additive with respect to
this gain error. The typical +FS andFS errors as a func-
tion of the sum of the source resistance seen by IN+ and
IN for large values of CIN are shown in Figures 20 and 21.
In addition to this gain error, an offset error term may
also appear. The offset error is proportional with the
mismatch between the source impedance driving the two
input pins IN+ and IN and with the difference between the
input and reference common mode voltages. While the
input drive circuit nonzero source impedance combined
with the converter average input current will not degrade
the INL performance, indirect distortion may result from
the modulation of the offset error by the common mode
component of the input signal. Thus, when using large
CIN capacitor values, it is advisable to carefully match the
source impedance seen by the IN+ and IN pins. When
internal oscillator is used (FO = LOW), everymismatch
in source impedance transforms a full-scale common
mode input signal into a differential mode input signal
of 0.25ppm. When FO is driven by an external oscillator
with a frequency fEOSC, everymismatch in source
impedance transforms a full-scale common mode input
signal into a differential mode input signal of 1.78 10–6
fEOSCppm. Figure 22 shows the typical offset error due to
input common mode voltage for various values of source
resistance imbalance between the IN+ and IN pins when
large CIN values are used.
If possible, it is desirable to operate with the input signal
common mode voltage very close to the reference signal
common mode voltage as is the case in the ratiometric
measurement of a symmetric bridge. This configuration
eliminates the offset error caused by mismatched source
impedances.
The magnitude of the dynamic input current depends upon
the size of the very stable internal sampling capacitors and
upon the accuracy of the converter sampling clock. The
accuracy of the internal clock over the entire temperature
and power supply range is typical better than 0.5%. Such
a specification can also be easily achieved by an external
clock. When relatively stable resistors (50ppm/°C) are used
for the external source impedance seen by IN+ and IN,
the expected drift of the dynamic current, offset and gain
errors will be insignificant (about 1% of their respective
values over the entire temperature and voltage range). Even
for the most stringent applications a one-time calibration
operation may be sufficient.
In addition to the input sampling charge, the input ESD
protection diodes have a temperature dependent leakage
current. This current, nominally 1nA (±10nA max), results
in a small offset shift. A 100Ω source resistance will create
a 0.1µV typical and 1µV maximum offset voltage.
LTC241 3 , cwaumupé cw=uwr \ x x \ c =uuwr \ \¢ \ c , \d , \ ‘uF ‘uuF Fa = GND 15 = 25m RsauRcEvr= sum 0 = um
LTC2413
28
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Reference Current
In a similar fashion, the LTC2413 samples the differential
reference pins REF+ and REF transfering small amount
of charge to and from the external driving circuits, thus
produces a dynamic reference current. This current does
not change the converter offset but it may degrade the
gain and INL performance. The effect of this current can
be analyzed in the same two distinct situations.
For relatively small values of the external reference capaci-
tors (CREF < 0.01µF), the voltage on the sampling capacitor
settles almost completely and relatively large values for
the source impedance result in only small errors. Such
values for CREF will deteriorate the converter offset and
gain performance without significant benefits of reference
filtering and the user is advised to avoid them.
Larger values of reference capacitors (CREF > 0.01µF)
may be required as reference filters in certain configura-
tions. Such capacitors will average the reference sampling
charge and the external source resistance will see a quasi
constant reference differential impedance. When internal
oscillator is used (FO = LOW), the typical differential
input resistance is 1.43which will generate a gain
error of approximately 0.35ppm for each ohm of source
resistance driving REF+ or REF. When FO is driven by
an external oscillator with a frequency fEOSC (external
conversion clock operation), the typical differential ref-
erence resistance is 0.20 1012/fEOSCΩ and each ohm
of source resistance drving REF+ or REF will result in
2.47 10–6 fEOSCppm gain error. The effect of the source
resistance on the two reference pins is additive with respect
to this gain error. The typical +FS andFS errors for vari-
ous combinations of source resistance seen by the REF+
and REF pins and external capacitance CREF connected
to these pins are shown in Figures 23, 24, 25 and26.
In addition to this gain error, the converter INL perfor-
mance is degraded by the reference source impedance.
When internal oscillator is used(FO = LOW), every 100Ω
of source impedance driving REF+ or REF translates into
about 1.2ppm additional INL error. When FO is driven by
an external oscillator with a frequency fEOSC, every 100Ω
of source resistance driving REF+ or REF translates
into about 8.73 10–6 fEOSCppm additional INL error.
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 20. +FS Error vs RSOURCE at IN+ or IN (Large CIN)
Figure 21. –FS Error vs RSOURCE at IN+ or IN (Large CIN)
Figure 22. Offset Error vs Common Mode Voltage
(VINCM = IN+ = IN) and Input Source Resistance Imbalance
(∆RIN = RSOURCEIN+ – RSOURCEIN–) for Large CIN Values (CIN ≥ 1µF)
RSOURCE (Ω)
0100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 9001000
+FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F19
300
240
180
120
60
0
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 3.75V
IN = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CIN = 0.01µF
CIN = 0.1µF
CIN = 1µF, 10µF
RSOURCE (Ω)
0100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 9001000
FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F21
0
60
120
180
240
300
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 3.75V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CIN = 0.01µF
CIN = 0.1µF
CIN = 1µF, 10µF
VINCM (V)
00.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F22
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
RSOURCEIN– = 500Ω
CIN = 10µF
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = IN = VINCM
A: ∆RIN = +400Ω
B: ∆RIN = +200Ω
C: ∆RIN = +100Ω
D: ∆RIN = 0Ω
E: ∆RIN = –100Ω
F: ∆RIN = –200Ω
G: ∆RIN = –400Ω
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
LTC2413 -1: 0 RE new A / empowri cREpu w ’CREF =wF qu DRE; 0 m M .4 ,M L7 LJUW 29
LTC2413
29
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure27 shows the typical INL error due to the source
resistance driving the REF+ or REF pins when large CREF
values are used. The effect of the source resistance on
the two reference pins is additive with respect to this INL
error. In general, matching of source impedance for the
REF+ and REF pins does not help the gain or the INL er-
ror. The user is thus advised to minimize the combined
source impedance driving the REF+ and REF pins rather
than to try to match it.
The magnitude of the dynamic reference current depends
upon the size of the very stable internal sampling capacitors
and upon the accuracy of the converter sampling clock. The
accuracy of the internal clock over the entire temperature
and power supply range is typical better than 0.5%. Such
a specification can also be easily achieved by an external
clock. When relatively stable resistors (50ppm/°C) are
used for the external source impedance seen by REF+
and REF, the expected drift of the dynamic current gain
error will be insignificant (about 1% of its value over the
entire temperature and voltage range). Even for the most
stringent applications, a one-time calibration operation
may be sufficient.
In addition to the reference sampling charge, the refer-
ence pins ESD protection diodes have a temperature de-
pendent leakage current. This leakage current, nominally
1nA (±10nA max), results in a small gain error. A 100Ω
source resistance will create a 0.05µV typical and 0.5µV
maximum full-scale error.
Figure 23. +FS Error vs RSOURCE at REF+ or REF (Small CREF) Figure 24. –FS Error vs RSOURCE at REF+ or REF (Small CREF)
Figure 25. +FS Error vs RSOURCE at REF+ or REF (Large CREF) Figure 26. –FS Error vs RSOURCE at REF+ or REF (Large CREF)
RSOURCE (Ω)
1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05
+FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F23
0
10
20
30
40
50
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 5V
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CREF = 0.01µF
CREF = 0.001µF
CREF = 100pF
CREF = 0pF
RSOURCE (Ω)
1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05
FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F24
50
40
30
20
10
0
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = GND
IN = 2.5V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CREF = 0.01µF
CREF = 0.001µF
CREF = 100pF
CREF = 0pF
RSOURCE (Ω)
0100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 9001000
+FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F25
0
90
180
270
360
450
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 3.75V
IN = 1.25V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CREF = 0.01µF
CREF = 0.1µF
CREF = 1µF, 10µF
RSOURCE (Ω)
0100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 9001000
FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F26
450
360
270
180
90
0
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 3.75V
FO = GND
TA = 25°C
CREF = 0.01µF
CREF = 0.1µF
CREF = 1µF, 10µF
LTC241 3 RsnuRuE =
LTC2413
30
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Output Data Rate
When using its internal oscillator, the LTC2413 can produce
up to 6.8 readings per second. The actual output data rate
will depend upon the length of the sleep and data output
phases which are controlled by the user and which can be
made insignificantly short. When operated with an external
conversion clock (FO connected to an external oscillator),
the LTC2413 output data rate can be increased as desired.
The duration of the conversion phase is 20510/fEOSC. If
fEOSC = 139800Hz, the converter behaves as if the internal
oscillator is used with simultaneous 50Hz/60Hz rejection.
There is no significant difference in the LTC2413 perfor-
mance between these two operation modes.
An increase in fEOSC over the nominal 139800Hz will
translate into a proportional increase in the maximum
output data rate. This substantial advantage is neverthe-
less accompanied by three potential effects, which must
be carefully considered.
applicaTions inForMaTion
First, a change in fEOSC will result in a proportional change
in the internal notch position and in a reduction of the
converter differential mode rejection at the power-line
frequency. In many applications, the subsequent per-
formance degradation can be substantially reduced by
relying upon the LTC2413’s exceptional common mode
rejection and by carefully eliminating common mode to
differential mode conversion sources in the input circuit.
The user should avoid single-ended input filters and should
maintain a very high degree of matching and symmetry
in the circuits driving the IN+ and IN pins.
Second, the increase in clock frequency will increase
proportionally the amount of sampling charge transferred
through the input and the reference pins. If large external
input and/or reference capacitors (CIN, CREF) are used,
the previous section provides formulae for evaluating the
effect of the source resistance upon the converter perfor-
mance for any value of fEOSC. If small external input and/
or reference capacitors (CIN, CREF) are used, the effect of
the external source resistance upon the LTC2413 typical
performance can be inferred from Figures 18, 19, 23 and
24 in which the horizontal axis is scaled by 139800/fEOSC.
Figure 27. INL vs Differential Input Voltage (VIN = IN+ – IN)
and Reference Source Resistance (RSOURCE at REF+ and REF for
Large CREF Values (CREF ≥ 1µF)
VINDIF/VREFDIF
–0.50.40.30.20.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
INL (ppm OF VREF)
15
12
9
6
3
0
3
6
9
12
15
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF– = GND
VINCM = 0.5 • (IN+ + IN) = 2.5V
FO = GND
CREF = 10µF
TA = 25°C
RSOURCE = 1000Ω
2413 F27
RSOURCE = 100Ω
RSOURCE = 500Ω
LTC2413 : 35” 31
LTC2413
31
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Third, an increase in the frequency of the external oscil-
lator above 460800Hz (a more than 3× increase in the
output data rate) will start to decrease the effectiveness
of the internal autocalibration circuits. This will result in
a progressive degradation in the converter accuracy and
linearity. Typical measured performance curves for output
data rates up to 25 readings per second are shown in
Figures28 through 35, inclusive. In order to obtain the
highest possible level of accuracy from this converter at
output data rates above 7.5 readings per second, the user
is advised to maximize the power supply voltage used and
to limit the maximum ambient operating temperature.
In certain circumstances, a reduction of the differential
reference voltage may be beneficial.
Figure 28. Offset Error vs Output Data Rate and Temperature
Figure 29. +FS Error vs Output Data Rate and Temperature Figure 30. –FS Error vs Output Data Rate and Temperature
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F28
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
TA = 85°C
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
TA = 25°C
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
+FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F29
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 3.75V
IN = 1.25V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
TA = 85°C
TA = 25°C
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
–FS ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F30
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
TA = 85°C
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
IN+ = 1.25V
IN = 3.75V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
TA = 25°C
LTC241 3 _ vkw 5v 32 L7ELUEN2
LTC2413
32
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 31. Resolution (NoiseRMS ≤ 1LSB)
vs Output Data Rate and Temperature
Figure 32. Resolution (INLRMS ≤ 1LSB)
vs Output Data Rate and Temperature
Figure 33. Offset Error vs Output
Data Rate and Reference Voltage
Figure 34. Resolution (NoiseRMS ≤ 1LSB) vs
Output Data Rate and Reference Voltage
Figure 35. Resolution (INLMAX ≤ 1LSB) vs Output Data Rate and Reference Voltage
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
RESOLUTION (BITS)
2413 F31
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
TA = 85°C
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
RESOLUTION = LOG2(VREF/NOISERMS)
TA = 25°C
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
RESOLUTION (BITS)
2413 F32
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
TA = 85°C
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
–2.5V < VIN < 2.5V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
RESOLUTION = LOG2(VREF/INLMAX)
TA = 25°C
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
OFFSET ERROR (ppm OF VREF)
2413 F33
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
VREF = 5V
VCC = 5V
REF+ = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
TA = 25°C
VREF = 2.5V
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
RESOLUTION (BITS)
2413 F34
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
VREF = 5V
VCC = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
VIN = 0V
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
TA = 25°C
RESOLUTION = LOG2(VREF/NOISERMS)
VREF = 2.5V
OUTPUT DATA RATE (READINGS/SEC)
0 5 10 15 20 25
RESOLUTION (BITS)
2413 F35
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
TA = 25°C
VCC = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 0.5 • REF+
0.5V • VREF < VIN < 0.5 • VREF
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
VREF = 2.5V
VREF = 5V
RESOLUTION =
LOG2(VREF/INLMAX)
LTC2413 L7Hߤ0g 33
LTC2413
33
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Input Bandwidth
The combined effect of the internal sinc4 digital filter and
of the analog and digital autocalibration circuits determines
the LTC2413 input bandwidth. When the internal oscillator
is used (FO = LOW), the 3dB input bandwidth is 3.3Hz. If
an external conversion clock generator of frequency fEOSC
is connected to the FO pin, the 3dB input bandwidth is
0.236 • 10–6fEOSC.
Due to the complex filtering and calibration algorithms
utilized, the converter input bandwidth is not modeled
very accurately by a first order filter with the pole located
at the 3dB frequency. When the internal oscillator is used,
the shape of the LTC2413 input bandwidth is shown in
Figure36. When an external oscillator of frequency fEOSC
is used, the shape of the LTC2413 input bandwidth can
be derived from Figure36, in which the horizontal axis is
scaled by fEOSC/139800.
The conversion noise (800nVRMS typical for VREF = 5V) can
be modeled as a white noise source connected to a noise
free converter. The noise spectral density is 63nV/√Hz for
an infinite bandwidth source and 77nV/√Hz for a single
0.5MHz pole source. From these numbers, it is clear that
particular attention must be given to the design of external
amplification circuits. Such circuits face the simultaneous
requirements of very low bandwidth (just a few Hz) in
order to reduce the output referred noise and relatively
high bandwidth (at least 500kHz) necessary to drive the
input switched-capacitor network. A possible solution is
applicaTions inForMaTion
a high gain, low bandwidth amplifier stage followed by a
high bandwidth unity-gain buffer.
When external amplifiers are driving the LTC2413, the
ADC input referred system noise calculation can be
simplified by Figure 37. The noise of an amplifier driving
the LTC2413 input pin can be modeled as a band limited
white noise source. Its bandwidth can be approximated
by the bandwidth of a single pole lowpass filter with a
corner frequency fi. The amplifier noise spectral density
is ni. From Figure37, using fi as the x-axis selector, we
can find on the y-axis the noise equivalent bandwidth freqi
of the input driving amplifier. This bandwidth includes
the band limiting effects of the ADC internal calibration
and filtering. The noise of the driving amplifier referred
to the converter input and including all these effects can
be calculated as N= ni freqi. The total system noise
(referred to the LTC2413 input) can now be obtained by
summing as square root of sum of squares the three ADC
input referred noise sources: the LTC2413 internal noise
(800nV), the noise of the IN+ driving amplifier and the
noise of the IN driving amplifier.
If the FO pin is driven by an external oscillator of frequency
fEOSC, Figure 37 can still be used for noise calculation if
the x-axis is scaled by fEOSC/139800. For large values of
the ratio fEOSC/139800, the Figure 37 plot accuracy begins
to decrease, but in the same time the LTC2413 noise floor
rises and the noise contribution of the driving amplifiers
lose significance.
Figure 36. Input Signal Bandwidth Using the Internal Oscillator Figure 37. Input Referred Noise Equivalent Bandwidth
of an Input Connected White Noise Source
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY (Hz)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
INPUT SIGNAL ATTENUATION (dB)
2413 F36
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
1
10
0.1
100
1000
INPUT NOISE SOURCE SINGLE POLE
EQUIVALENT BANDWIDTH (Hz)
INPUT REFERRED NOISE
EQUIVALENT BANDWIDTH (Hz)
0.1 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M
2413 F37
FO = LOW
LTc241 3
LTC2413
34
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Normal Mode Rejection and Antialiasing
One of the advantages delta-sigma ADCs offer over
conventional ADCs is on-chip digital filtering. Combined
with a large oversampling ratio, the LTC2413 significantly
simplifies antialiasing filter requirements.
The sinc4 digital filter provides greater than 120dB normal
mode rejection at all frequencies except DC and integer
multiples of the modulator sampling frequency (fS). The
LTC2413’s autocalibration circuits further simplify the
antialiasing requirements by additional normal mode
signal filtering both in the analog and digital domain.
Independent of the operating mode, fS = 256 • fN = 2048
fOUTMAX where fN in the notch frequency and fOUTMAX is
applicaTions inForMaTion
the maximum output data rate. In the internal oscillator
mode, fS = 13980Hz. In the external oscillator mode, fS
= fEOSC/10.
The combined normal mode rejection performance is
shown in Figure38. The regions of low rejection occurring
at integer multiples of fS have a very narrow bandwidth.
Magnified details of the normal mode rejection curves
are shown in Figure39 (rejection near DC) and Figure40
(rejection at fS = 256fN) where fN represents the notch
frequency. These curves have been derived for the exter-
nal oscillator mode but they can be used in all operating
modes by appropriately selecting the fN value.
Figure 39. Input Normal Mode Rejection
Figure 38. Input Normal Mode Rejection
Figure 40. Input Normal Mode Rejection
FO = LOW OR
FO = EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR,
fEOSC = 10 • fS
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY (Hz)
0 fS
INPUT NORMAL MODE REJECTION (dB)
2413 F38
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120 2fS3fS4fS5fS6fS7fS8fS9fS10fS
INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY (Hz)
INPUT NORMAL MODE REJECTION (dB)
2413 F39
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120 fN
0 2fN3fN4fN5fN6fN7fN8fN
INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY (Hz)
250fN252fN254fN256fN258fN260fN262fN
INPUT NORMAL MODE REJECTION (dB)
2413 F40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
LTC2413 L7HEJWEGR 35
LTC2413
35
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
The user can expect to achieve in practice this level of
performance using the internal oscillator, as it is dem-
onstrated by Figure 41. Typical measured values of the
normal mode rejection of the LTC2413 operating with the
internal oscillator are shown in Figure 41 superimposed
over the theoretical calculated curve.
As a result of these remarkable normal mode specifica-
tions, minimal (if any) antialias filtering is required in front
of the LTC2413. If passive RC components are placed in
front of the LTC2413, the input dynamic current should
be considered (see Input Current section). In cases where
large effective RC time constants are used, an external
buffer amplifier may be required to minimize the effects
of dynamic input current.
Traditional high order delta-sigma modulators, while
providing very good linearity and resolution, suffer
from potential instabilities at large input signal levels.
The proprietary architecture used for the LTC2413 third
order modulator resolves this problem and guarantees a
predictable stable behavior at input signal levels of up to
150% of full scale. In many industrial applications, it is
not uncommon to have to measure microvolt level signals
superimposed over volt level perturbations and LTC2413
is eminently suited for such tasks. When the perturbation
is differential, the specification of interest is the normal
mode rejection for large input signal levels. With a reference
voltage VREF=5V, the LTC2413 has a full-scale differential
Figure 41. Input Normal Mode Rejection vs Input
Frequency with Input Perturbation of 100% of Full Scale
INPUT FREQUENCY (Hz)
020 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
NORMAL MODE REJECTION (dB)
2413 F41
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
VIN(P-P) = 5V
TA = 25°C
MEASURED DATA
CALCULATED DATA
LTC241 3 36 L7ELUEN2
LTC2413
36
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
input range of 5V peak-to-peak. Figure 42 shows measure-
ment results for the LTC2413 normal mode rejection ratio
with a 7.5V peak-to-peak (150% of full scale) input signal
superimposed over the more traditional normal mode re-
jection ratio results obtained with a 5V peak-to-peak (full
scale) input signal. It is clear that the LTC2413 rejection
performance is maintained with no compromises in this
extreme situation. When operating with large input signal
levels, the user must observe that such signals do not
violate the device’s absolute maximum ratings.
BRIDGE APPLICATIONS
Typical strain gauge based bridges deliver only 2mV/
Volt of excitation. As the maximum reference voltage of
the LTC2413 is 5V, remote sensing of applied excitation
without additional circuitry requires that excitation be
applicaTions inForMaTion
limited to 5V. This gives only 10mV full scale, which can
be resolved to 1 part in 10000 without averaging. For many
solid state sensors, this is still better than the sensor. For
example, averaging 64 samples however reduces the noise
level by a factor of eight, bringing the resolving power to
1 part in 80000, comparable to better weighing systems.
Hysteresis and creep effects in the load cells are typically
much greater than this. Most applications that require
strain measurements to this level of accuracy are measur-
ing slowly changing phenomena, hence the time required
to average a large number of readings is usually not an
issue. For those systems that require accurate measure-
ment of a small incremental change on a significant tare
weight, the lack of history effects in the LTC2400 family
is of great benefit.
Figure 42. Measured Input Normal Mode Rejection vs Input
Frequency with Input Perturbation of 150% of Full Scale
INPUT FREQUENCY (Hz)
0
NORMAL MODE REJECTION (dB)
2413 F42
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
VCC = 5V
REF+ = 5V
REF = GND
VINCM = 2.5V
TA = 25°C
VIN(P-P) = 5V
VIN(P-P) = 7.5V
(150% OF FULL SCALE)
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
LTC2413 HP «HP n— HF on L7HEJWEGR 37
LTC2413
37
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
For those applications that cannot be fulfilled by the
LTC2413 alone, compensating for error in external amplifi-
cation can be done effectively due to theno latency” feature
of the LTC2413. No latency operation allows samples of the
amplifier offset and gain to be interleaved with weighing
measurements. The use of correlated double sampling
allows suppression of 1/f noise, offset and thermocouple
effects within the bridge. Correlated double sampling in-
volves alternating the polarity of excitation and dealing with
the reversal of input polarity mathematically. Alternatively,
bridge excitation can be increased to as much as ±10V,
if one of several precision attenuation techniques is used
to produce a precision divide operation on the reference
signal. Another option is the use of a reference within the
5V input range of the LTC2413 and developing excitation
via fixed gain, or LTC1043 based voltage multiplication,
along with remote feedback in the excitation amplifiers,
as shown in Figures 48 and 50.
Figure 43 shows an example of a simple bridge connection.
Note that it is suitable for any bridge application where
measurement speed is not of the utmost importance.
For many applications where large vessels are weighed,
the average weight over an extended period of time is of
concern and short term weight is not readily determined
due to movement of contents, or mechanical resonance.
Often, large weighing applications involve load cells
located at each load bearing point, the output of which
can be summed passively prior to the signal processing
circuitry, actively with amplification prior to the ADC, or
can be digitized via multiple ADC channels and summed
mathematically. The mathematical summation of the out-
put of multiple LTC2413’s provides the benefit of a root
square reduction in noise. The low power consumption
of the LTC2413 makes it attractive for multidrop com-
munication schemes where the ADC is located within the
load-cell housing.
A direct connection to a load cell is perhaps best incorpo-
rated into the load-cell body, as minimizing the distance
to the sensor largely eliminates the need for protection
devices, RFI suppression and wiring. The LTC2413 exhibits
extremely low temperature dependent drift. As a result,
exposure to external ambient temperature ranges does
not compromise performance. The incorporation of any
amplification considerably complicates thermal stability, as
input offset voltages and currents, temperature coefficient
of gain settling resistors all become factors.
The circuit in Figure 44 shows an example of a simple
amplification scheme. This example produces a differ-
ential output with a common mode voltage of 2.5V, as
determined by the bridge. The use of a true three amplifier
instrumentation amplifier is not necessary, as the LTC2413
Figure 43. Simple Bridge Connection
REF+
REF
SDO
SCK
IN+
IN
CS
GND
VREF
FO
3
R1
12
435
BRIDGE
13
5
6
2413 F43
11
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2
14
LTC2413
+
R2
R1 AND R2 CAN BE USED TO INCREASE TOLERABLE AC COMPONENT ON REF SIGNALS
LT1019
LTC241 3
LTC2413
38
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
has common mode rejection far beyond that of most am-
plifiers. The LTC1051 is a dual autozero amplifier that can
be used to produce a gain of 15 before its input referred
noise dominates the LTC2413 noise. This example shows
a gain of 34, that is determined by a feedback network built
using a resistor array containing 8 individual resistors. The
resistors are organized to optimize temperature tracking in
the presence of thermal gradients. The second LTC1051
buffers the low noise input stage from the transient load
steps produced during conversion.
The gain stability and accuracy of this approach is very
good, due to a statistical improvement in resistor matching
due to individual error contribution being reduced. A gain
of 34 may seem low, when compared to common practice
in earlier generations of load-cell interfaces, however the
accuracy of the LTC2413 changes the rationale. Achiev-
ing high gain accuracy and linearity at higher gains may
prove difficult, while providing little benefit in terms of
noise reduction.
At a gain of 100, the gain error that could result from
typical open-loop gain of 160dB is –1ppm, however,
worst-case is at the minimum gain of 116dB, giving a
gain error of –158ppm. Worst-case gain error at a gain
of 34, is –54ppm. The use of the LTC1051A reduces the
worst-case gain error to –33ppm. The advantage of gain
higher than 34, then becomes dubious, as the input re-
ferred noise sees little improvement1 and gain accuracy
is potentially compromised.
Note that this 4-amplifier topology has advantages over
the typical integrated 3-amplifier instrumentation amplifier
in that it does not have the high noise level common in
the output stage that usually dominates when an instru-
mentation amplifier is used at low gain. If this amplifier
is used at a gain of 10, the gain error is only 10ppm and
input referred noise is reduced to 0.1µVRMS. The buffer
stages can also be configured to provide gain of up to 50
with high gain stability and linearity.
Figure 45 shows an example of a single amplifier used to
produce single-ended gain. This topology is best used in
applications where the gain setting resistor can be made
to match the temperature coefficient of the strain gauges.
If the bridge is composed of precision resistors, with only
one or two variable elements, the reference arm of the
bridge can be made to act in conjunction with the feedback
resistor to determine the gain. If the feedback resistor is
incorporated into the design of the load cell, using resistors
which match the temperature coefficient of the load-cell
elements, good results can be achieved without the need
for resistors with a high degree of absolute accuracy. The
common mode voltage in this case, is again a function of
the bridge output. Differential gain as used with a 350Ω
bridge is AV = (R1+ R2)/(R1+175Ω). Common mode gain
is half the differential gain. The maximum differential signal
that can be used is 1/4 VREF, as opposed to 1/2 VREF in
the 2-amplifier topology above.
Remote Half Bridge Interface
As opposed to full bridge applications, typical half bridge
applications must contend with nonlinearity in the bridge
output, as signal swing is often much greater. Applications
include RTD’s, thermistors and other resistive elements
that undergo significant changes over their span. For single
variable element bridges, the nonlinearity of the half bridge
output can be eliminated completely; if the reference arm
of the bridge is used as the reference to the ADC, as shown
in Figure 46. The LTC2413 can accept inputs up to 1/2
VREF. Hence, the reference resistor R1 must be at least
2x the highest value of the variable resistor.
In the case of 100Ω platinum RTD’s, this would suggest
a value of 800Ω for R1. Such a low value for R1 is not
advisable due to self-heating effects. A value of 25.5k is
shown for R1, reducing self-heating effects to acceptable
levels for most sensors.
1Input referred noise for AV = 34 for approximately 0.05µVRMS, whereas at a gain of 50, it would
be 0.048µVRMS.
LTC2413 35m \DGE Ill-HT L7 LJUW 39
LTC2413
39
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
The basic circuit shown in Figure 46 shows connections
for a full 4-wire connection to the sensor, which may be
located remotely. The differential input connections will
reject induced or coupled 60Hz interference, however,
the reference inputs do not have the same rejection. If
60Hz or other noise is present on the reference input, a
low pass filter is recommended as shown in Figure 47.
Note that you cannot place a large capacitor directly at
the junction of R1 and R2, as it will store charge from
the sampling process. A better approach is to produce a
low pass filter decoupled from the input lines with a high
value resistor (R3).
The use of a third resistor in the half bridge, between the
variable and fixed elements gives essentially the same
result as the two resistor version, but has a few benefits.
If, for example, a 25k reference resistor is used to set the
excitation current with a 100Ω RTD, the negative reference
input is sampling the same external node as the positive
input, but may result in errors if used with a long cable.
For short cable applications, the errors may be acceptably
low. If instead the single 25k resistor is replaced with a
10k 5% and a 10k 0.1% reference resistor, the noise level
introduced at the reference, at least at higher frequencies,
will be reduced. A filter can be introduced into the network,
in the form of one or more capacitors, or ferrite beads,
as long as the sampling pulses are not translated into an
error. The reference voltage is also reduced, but this is
not undesirable, as it will decrease the value of the LSB,
although, not the input referred noise level.
The circuit shown in Figure 47 shows a more rigorous
example of Figure 46, with increased noise suppression
and more protection for remote applications.
Figure 48 shows an example of gain in the excitation cir-
cuit and remote feedback from the bridge. The LTC1043’s
provide voltage multiplication, providing ±10V from a 5V
reference with only 1ppm error. The amplifiers are used at
unity-gain and, hence, introduce a very little error due to
gain error or due to offset voltages. AV/°C offset voltage
drift translates into 0.05ppm/°C gain error. Simpler alter-
natives, with the amplifiers providing gain using resistor
arrays for feedback, can produce results that are similar
to bridge sensing schemes via attenuators. Note that the
amplifiers must have high open-loop gain or gain error
Figure 44. Using Autozero Amplifiers to Reduce Input Referred Noise
0.1µF
8
0.1µF 0.1µF
REF+
REF
SDO
SCK
IN+
IN
CS
GND
VCC
FO
3 12
5VREF
4
350Ω
BRIDGE
13
5
6
2413 F44
11
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2
14
LTC2413
RN1 = 5k × 8 RESISTOR ARRAY
U1A, U1B, U2A, U2B = 1/2 LTC1051
+
3
2
8
4
U1A
4
5V
+
6
5
RN1
1
16
15
2
6 11
7
1
14
3
7 10
4
13
8 9
5 12
U1B
+
2
3
U2A
5V
1
+
6
5
U2B 7
LTc241 3 «IT
LTC2413
40
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
will be a source of error. The fact that input offset voltage
has relatively little effect on overall error may lead one to
use low performance amplifiers for this application. Note
that the gain of a device such as an LF156, (25V/mV over
temperature) will produce a worst-case error of –180ppm
at a noise gain of 3, such as would be encountered in an
inverting gain of 2, to produce –10V from a 5V reference.
The error associated with the 10V excitation would be
80ppm. Hence, overall reference error could be as high
as 130ppm, the average of the two.
Figure 50 shows a similar scheme to provide excitation
using resistor arrays to produce precise gain. The circuit
is configured to provide 10V and –5V excitation to the
bridge, producing a common mode voltage at the input to
the LTC2413 of 2.5V, maximizing the AC input range for
applications where induced 60Hz could reach amplitudes
up to 2VRMS.
The circuits in Figures 48 and 50 could be used where
multiple bridge circuits are involved and bridge output can
be multiplexed onto a single LTC2413, via an inexpensive
multiplexer such as the 74HC4052.
Figure 49 shows the use of an LTC2413 with a differential
multiplexer. This is an inexpensive multiplexer that will
contribute some error due to leakage if used directly with
the output from the bridge, or if resistors are inserted as
a protection mechanism from overvoltage. Although the
bridge output may be within the input range of the A/D and
multiplexer in normal operation, some thought should be
given to fault conditions that could result in full excitation
voltage at the inputs to the multiplexer or ADC. The use of
amplification prior to the multiplexer will largely eliminate
errors associated with channel leakage developing error
voltages in the source impedance.
Figure 45. Bridge Amplification Using a Single Amplifier
0.1µF
5V
REF+
REF
IN+
IN
GND
VCC
3
3
2
4
6
7
4
35
BRIDGE
5
6
2413 F45
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2
LTC2413
+
LTC1050S8
5V
0.1µV
R2
46.4k
20k
20k
175Ω
1µF
10µF
R1
4.99k
( )
AV = 9.95 = R1 + R2
R1 + 175Ω
+
+
1µF
+
LTC2413 L7 LJUW 4 1
LTC2413
41
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 47. Remote Half Bridge Sensing with Noise Suppression on Reference
Figure 46. Remote Half Bridge Interface
2413 F46
REF+
REF
IN+
IN
GND
VCC
VS
2.7V TO 5.5V
3
4
5
6
PLATINUM
100Ω
RTD
R1
25.5k
0.1%
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2
LTC2413
REF+
REF
IN
GND
VCC
5V
3
4
6
2413 F47
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2
LTC2413
+
LTC1050
5V
PLATINUM
100Ω
RTD
560Ω
R3
10k
5%
R1
10k, 5%
R2
10k
0.1%
1µF
IN+
5
10k
10k
LTc241 3
LTC2413
42
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 48. LTC1043 Provides Precise 4X Reference for Excitation Voltages
35
BRIDGE
0.1µF
1µF
15V15V
15V
3 8
14
7
4
13
12
11
10V 5V
15V
U1
LTC1043
6
2
7
4
7
4
+
REF+
REF
IN+
IN
GND
VCC
3
4
5
6
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2413 F48
2
5V
LTC2413
47µF 0.1µF
10V
+ +
17
5
15
6
18
3
2
U2
LTC1043
1µF
FILM
8
14
7
4
13
12
11
*
*
*
5V
U2
LTC1043
17
10V
10V
LT1236-5
1k
33Ω
Q1
2N3904
0.1µF
15V
15V
15V
3
6
2
+
1k
33Ω
Q2
2N3906
*FLYING CAPACITORS ARE
1µF FILM (MKP OR EQUIVALENT)
SEE LTC1043 DATA SHEET FOR
DETAILS ON UNUSED HALF OF U1
LTC1150
LTC1150
20Ω
200Ω
20Ω
200Ω
0.1µF
10µF
+
LTC2413 43
LTC2413
43
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
applicaTions inForMaTion
Figure 49. Use a Differential Multiplexer to Expand Channel Capability
2413 F49
REF+
REF
IN+
IN
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
A0
A1
LTC2413
VCC
GND
13
3
5
4
3
6
6
12 47µF
14
1
5
10
16 2
5V
15
11
2
TO OTHER
DEVICES 4
98
5V
+
74HC4052
[IC2413 ID DDDDDDDJ, 1D WUDDDD A Afiem Lu“ ,44799999999 74;; L7 L7LJCUEN2
LTC2413
44
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
package DescripTion
Please refer to http://www.linear.com/designtools/packaging/ for the most recent package drawings.
GN16 REV B 0212
1 2 345678
.229 – .244
(5.817 – 6.198)
.150 – .157**
(3.810 – 3.988)
16 15 14 13
.189 – .196*
(4.801 – 4.978)
12 11 10 9
.016 – .050
(0.406 – 1.270)
.015 ±.004
(0.38 ±0.10) × 45°
0° – 8° TYP
.007 – .0098
(0.178 0.249)
.0532 – .0688
(1.35 – 1.75)
.008 – .012
(0.203 – 0.305)
TYP
.004 – .0098
(0.102 – 0.249)
.0250
(0.635)
BSC
.009
(0.229)
REF
.254 MIN
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD LAYOUT
.150 – .165
.0250 BSC.0165 ±.0015
.045 ±.005
* DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH. MOLD FLASH
SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.006" (0.152mm) PER SIDE
** DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE INTERLEAD FLASH. INTERLEAD
FLASH SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.010" (0.254mm) PER SIDE
INCHES
(MILLIMETERS)
NOTE:
1. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCHES
2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN
3. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
4. PIN 1 CAN BE BEVEL EDGE OR A DIMPLE
GN Package
16-Lead Plastic SSOP (Narrow .150 Inch)
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1641 Rev B)
LTC2413 L7Hߤ0g 45
LTC2413
45
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representa-
tion that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
revision hisTory
REV DATE DESCRIPTION PAGE NUMBER
A 08/15 Updated fEOSC maximum to 500KHz and all associated information 6, 7, 8, 10,
31, 32
LTc241 3 ‘ L L 2:3qu g V -02 -uwF : 7
LTC2413
46
2413fa
For more information www.linear.com/LTC2413
LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2000
LT 0815 REV A • PRINTED IN USA
Linear Technology Corporation
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900 FAX: (408) 434-0507 www.linear.com/LTC2413
relaTeD parTs
Typical applicaTion
PART NUMBER DESCRIPTION COMMENTS
LT1019 Precision Bandgap Reference, 2.5V, 5V 3ppm/°C Drift, 0.05% Max Initial Accuracy
LT1025 Micropower Thermocouple Cold Junction Compensator 80µA Supply Current, 0.5°C Initial Accuracy
LTC1043 Dual Precision Instrumentation Switched Capacitor
Building Block
Precise Charge, Balanced Switching, Low Power
LTC1050 Precision Chopper Stabilized Op Amp No External Components 5µV Offset, 1.6µVP-P Noise
LT1236A-5 Precision Bandgap Reference, 5V 0.05% Max Initial Accuracy, 5ppm/°C Drift
LT1460 Micropower Series Reference 0.075% Max, 10ppm/°C Max Drift
LTC2400 24-Bit, No Latency ∆∑ ADC in SO-8 0.3ppm Noise, 4ppm INL, 10ppm Total Unadjusted Error, 200µA
LTC2401/LTC2402 1-/2-Channel, 24-Bit, No Latency ∆∑ ADC in MSOP 0.6ppm Noise, 4ppm INL, 10ppm Total Unadjusted Error, 200µA
LTC2404/LTC2408 4-/8-Channel, 24-Bit, No Latency ∆∑ ADC 0.3ppm Noise, 4ppm INL, 10ppm Total Unadjusted Error, 200µA
LTC2410 24-Bit, Fully Differential, No Latency ∆∑ ADC in SSOP-16 0.16ppm Noise, 2ppm INL, 3ppm Total Unadjusted Error, 200µA
LTC2411 24-Bit, Fully Differential, No Latency ∆∑ ADC in MS10 0.29ppm Noise, 2ppm INL, 3ppm Total Unadjusted Error, 200µA
LTC2415 24-Bit, Fully Differential, ∆∑ ADC 15Hz Output Rate at 60Hz Rejection, Pin Compatible with LTC2410
LTC2420 20-Bit, No Latency ∆∑ ADC in SO-8 1.2ppm Noise, 8ppm INL, Pin Compatible with LTC2400
LTC2424/LTC2428 4-/8-Channel, 20-Bit, No Latency ∆∑ ADC 1.2ppm Noise, 8ppm INL, Pin Compatible with LTC2404/LTC2408
Figure 50. Use Resistor Arrays to Provide Precise Matching in Excitation Amplifier
C1
0.1µF
15V
3
1
2
3
21
65
4
+
REF+
REF
IN+
IN
GND
VCC
3
4
5
6
1, 7, 8, 9,
10, 15, 16
2413 F50
2
LTC2413
LT1236-5
RN1
10k
22Ω
10V
350Ω BRIDGE
TWO ELEMENTS
VARYING
RN1
10k
Q1
2N3904
1/2
LT1112
C2
0.1µF
15V
5V
–15V 15V
6
7
5
8
7
+
RN1
10k
RN1 IS CADDOCK T914 10K-010-02
Q2, Q3
2N3906
×2
1/2
LT1112
RN1
10k
33Ω
×2
C3
47µF
C1
0.1µF
5V
5V
8
4
20Ω
20Ω
+

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